The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Compost Preparation/85
Once activated, the microbes begin to attack the straw and decompose the waxy film which encases
the straw fibers. Until this film is degraded, water will not penetrate the straw and its nutrients will remain unavailable. As the process progresses, the fibers become increasingly receptive to wafer,
which rather than being free or on the surface, penetrates and is absorbed into the straw.

There are many methods for pre-wetting. These include: dipping or dunking the material info a
tank of water; spraying it with a hose; or spreading it out in a flat pile 2-3 feet high and running a
sprinkler over it. Regardless of the method used, the result should be the same—a homogeneous
evenly wetted pile.
Horse manure needs less time for pre-wetting due to the nature of the bedding straw. This straw
has been trampled upon, opening the straw fiber and damaging the waxy film. The urine and droppings have also begun to soften it. This is not the case with a synthetic compost in which the baled
straw is still fresh and tough. To stimulate microbial action in synthetics, some supplements are
added at pre-wetting. Suitable supplements include any from group 1, 4, 5 or chicken manure.

The length of time needed for pre-wetfing varies according to the condition of the starting materials. Generally 3 days for horse manure and 5-12 days for a synthetic compost is sufficient. The
pre-wetting time for a synthetic compost can be shortened if the straw is mechanically chopped, but
care should be taken that the fibers do not become too short.

The wetted materials are then piled in a large rounded heap called a windrow. During this period the windrow can be turned and re-wetted as needed, usually 1-3 times.

BuiJding the Pile
Building the compost pile is called stacking, ricking or "make-up". At this time the pre-wetted
starting materials and the nitrogenous supplements are evenly mixed, watered and assembled into a

pile. The size, shape and specific physical properties of this pile are very important for optimum
composting. These are:
1.

Pile dimensions should be 5-6 feet wide by 4-6 feet high. The shape should be rectangular
or square.

2. The side of the pile should be vertical and compressed from the outside by 3-6 inches. The
internal section should be less dense than the outer section.

3. The pile is such that any further increase in size would result in an anaerobic core.
Throughout the composting process, the size of the pile varies depending on the physical condition of the straw, which provides the pile's basic structure. The structure of the compost refers to
the physical interaction of raw materials, especially the straw fibers. As the straw degrades and the fibers flatten out, the structure becomes more dense and the airflow is restricted. The pile becomes
more compact and its size is reduced accordingly. initially the fresh straw allows for generous air
penetration which convects away heat and slows microbial action. To counteract this heat loss, the
pile should be of maximum size and optimum moisture content at make-up.
Figure 85 illustrates air penetration of a compost pile. Air enters the pile from the sides. As the

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor