The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Compost Preparation/83
form body tissues. A microbial succession of generations is established, with each new generation
decomposing the remains of the previous one. Microbial action also fixes a certain amount of the
ammonia, forming the "nitrogen-rich-lignin-humus-complex". Unused ammonia volatilizes into the
atmosphere. The smell of ammonia should be evident throughout Phase I, reaching a peak at filling.

Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio
The importance of a carbon:nitrogen balance cannot be underestimated. A well balanced compost holds an optimum nutritional level for microbial growth. An imbalance slows and impedes this
growth. It is the compost formula that enables the grower to achieve the correct C:N balance. Because organic matter is reduced during composting, the C:N ratio gradually decreases. Approxi-

mate values are: 30:1 at make-up; 20:1 at filling; and 17:1 at spawning.
1. Over-supplementation with nitrogen results in prolonged ammonia release.
2. Over-supplementation with carbohydrates results in residual carbon compounds.
Prolonged ammonia release from an over-supplemented compost necessitates longer cornposting times. If composting continues too long, the physical structure and nutritional qualities are
negatively affected. If the ammonia persists, the compost becomes unsuitable for mycellal growth.
Readily available carbohydrates which are not consumed by the microbes during composting
can become food for competitors. It is therefore important that these compounds are no longer
present when composting is finished.

Water and Air
Water is the most important component in the composting process. To a large degree water
governs the level of microbial activity. In turn, this activity determines the amount of heat generated

within the compost pile because the microorganisms can only take up nutrients in solution. Not
only do the microorganisms need water to thrive, but they also need oxygen. Years of practice and
research have established a basic relationship between the amount of water added and the aeration

of the compost. An inverse relationship exists between the amount of water and the
amount of oxygen in a compost pile.
1. Too much water = too little air
Moisture content 75% or above.

2. Too little water = too much air
Moisture content 67% or below
Overwetting a compost causes the air spaces to fill with water. Oxygen is unable to penetrate,
causing an anaerobic condition. In contrast, insufficient water results in a compost that is too airy.
Beneficial high temperatures are never reached because the heat generated is quickly convected
away.

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