The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
74/The Mushroom Cultivator
then fully opened at night when temperatures are at their lowest.

Humidification
Most mushroom growers use steam as the principal means of humidification. The steam is injected into the air system duct on the downstream side of the fan and filter. Household vaporizers
are well suited for small growing rooms. They are available in various capacities and can be fitted
with a duct running to the air system. The vaporizer can also be positioned under the mixing box for
steam uptake with the recirculated air. Keep in mind that cold fresh air has much less capacity for
moisture absorbtion and therefore does not mix well with large volumes of steam.

Another method of humidification uses atomizing nozzles to project a fine mist into the air
stream. Large systems have a separate mixing chamber with nozzles mounted to spray the passing
air. In a small room, a single nozzle can be mounted in the center of the duct and aimed to flow with
the air as it exits the fan. (See Figure 77). An appropriately sized nozzle emits 0.5-1 .0 gallons per

hour at 20-30 psi. To prevent the nozzle from plugging up, filters should be incorporated in the
water supply line.
In a third method, air passes through a coarse mesh absorbant material that is saturated with
water. This system is widely used for cooling at nurseries. It is similar in principle to a "swamp
cooler". In this system (and the water atomizing system), the temperature of the supply wafer can be
regulated to provide a measure of heating and cooling. Both systems also produce some free water
so provisions must be made for drainage.

Thermostats and Humidistats
In general, thermostats and humidistats are designed to open and close valves in response to
pre-set temperature or humidity limits. The instrument sensors are placed in a moving air stream
representative of room conditions, usually in or near the recirculation inlet. Because these instruments are programmed for either on or off, heat and humidity come in surges. Often this results in
uneven and fluctuating conditions within the room.

The ideal in environmental control is to supply just enough heat and humidity to make up for
losses from the room and to compensate for differences in the fresh air. Modulating thermostats do
this by supplying heat continously in proportion to the deviation from the desired temperature. Posi-

tive control of this sort can also be accomplished by hand valves, alone or in conjunction with
on/off instruments. Supply line volume is thereby regulated in order to attain an equilibrium. With a
thermostat, this means keeping the supply volume just below the cut-off point.

Lighting
Many cultivated mushrooms require light for pinhead initiation and proper development of the
fruitbody. In fact, such phototropic mushrooms actually twist and turn towards a light source, especially if it is dim and distant in an otherwise darkened room. Consequently, it is important to equip

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