The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
64/The Mushroom Cultivator
structed. Such a structure can be framed with 2" PVC pipe. The pipe forms a box frame to which
the plastic is attached. This type of growing room should not need insulation because of the air buffer between it and the larger room.
Porches, basements and garages can all be modified in the ways just mentioned. These areas
can also be used with little additional change if the climate of the region is compatible with the
mushroom species being grown. For example, Len finus edodes, the shiitake mushroom, readily
fruits at 50-60 degrees F. in a garage or basement environment.
The newest innovation in mushroom growing structures is the insulated plastic greenhouse.
The framework is made of galvinized metal pipe bent into a semi-circular shape and mounted at
ground level or on a 3.5 foot side wall. The ends of the walls and the doors are framed with wood.
Heavy plastic (5-6 mil) is stretched over the metal framework to form the inner skin of the room. A
layer of wire mesh is laid over the plastic and functions to hold 3-6 inches of fiberglass insulation in
place. A second plastic sheet covers the insulation and protects it from the weather. The plastic
should be stretched tight and anchored well. These layers are held in place by structural cable spanning the top and secured at each side. (See Figure 65). This type of structure, plastic coverings and
plastic fasteners are all available at nursery supply companies. Remember, the design of a mushroom growing room strives to minimize heat gain and loss.
For people with little or no available space, "mini-culture" in small environmental chambers
may be the most appropriate way to grow mushrooms. Styrofoam ice chests, aquariums and plastic
lined wood or cardboard boxes can all be used successfully. Because of the small volume of sub-

strates contained in one of these chambers, air exchange requirements are minimal. Usually,
enough air is exchanged in opening the chamber for a daily or twice daily misting. Clear, perforated
plastic covering the opening maintains the necessary humidity and the heat can be supplied by the
outer room. Larger chambers can be equipped with heating coils or a light bulb on a rheostat. Both
should be mounted at the base of the chamber. Mini-culture is an excellent and proven way to grow
small quantities of mushrooms for those not having the time or resources to erect larger, more con-

trolled environments.

Shelves
The most common indoor cultivation method is the shelf system. In this system, shelves form a

platform upon which the mushroom growing substrate is placed. The shelf framework consists of
upright posts. with cross bars at each level to support the shelf boards. This fixed framework is constructed of wood or non-corrosive tubular metal. The shelves should be a preservative-treated softwood. The bottom boards are commonly six inches wide with one inch spaces between them. Side
boards are 6-8 inches high depending on the depth of fill. A standardized design is shown in Figure
67. All shelf boards are placed unattached thereby allowing easy filling, emptying and cleaning.
Agaricus growers fill the shelf house from the bottom up. The shelf boards are stacked at the side of
the room and put into place after each level is completed.

The center pole design (shown in Figure 67) is a simple variation that is less restrictive and
ideally suited for growing in plastic bags. Another alternative is to use metal storage shelves. These

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