The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Grain Culture/57
takes place is of minimal size and is exposed for a only second or Iwo. The chance of airborne contamination is minimized.

The liquid inoculation technique works well provided the cultures selected are free from foreign
spores; otherwise the entire set of jars inoculated from that dish will be lost. The disadvantage with
this method is that there is no opportunity to avoid suspect zones on the culture dish—the water suspends contaminant spores and mycelia alike. If a culture dish is contaminated in one region, a few
jars may be lost via the traditional inoculation method while with the liquid inoculation technique
whole sets of up to one hundred spawn jars would be made useless.

Although mycelia! suspensions created in this manner work for many species, the mycelia of
some mushrooms do not survive the stirring process.

INCUBATION OF SPAWN
With each step in the cultivation process, the mycelial mass and its host substrate increases. In
seven days to Iwo weeks after inoculation, the spawn jars should be fully colonized with mushroom
mycelia. The danger here is that, if contamination goes undetected, that mold or bacterium will likewise be produced in large quantities. Hence, as time goes by the importance of clean masters becomes paramount. By balancing environmental parameters during incubation, especially
temperature, the mycelium is favored.

Once the jars have been inoculated, store them on shelves in a semisterile room whose temperature can be easily controlled. Light and humidity are not important at this time as a sealed jar
should retain its moisture. Air circulation is important only if the incubating jars overheat. In packing
a room tightly with spawn jars, overheating is a danger. Many thermophilic fungi that are inactive at
room temperature flourish at temperatures too high for mushrooms. Herein lies one of the major
problems with rooms having a high density of incubating spawn jars. If possible, some provisions
should be made to prevent temperature stratification in the incubation environment.
The major factor influencing the rate of mycelial growth is temperature. For every species there
is an optimum temperature at which the rate of mycelial growth is maximized. As a general rule, the
best temperature for vegetative (spawn) growth is several degrees higher than the one most stimula-

tory for fruiting. In Chapter XI, these optimum temperatures and other parameters are listed for
more than a dozen cultivated mushrooms. Yet another factor affecting both growth rate and suscep-

tibility to contamination is moisture content, a subject covered in the previous chapter on grain
culture.

Every day or so inspect the jars and check for the slightest sign of contaminafion. The most
common are the green molds Penicillium and Aspergillus. If contamination is detected, seal the lid
and remove the infected culture from the laboratory and growing facility. If a jar is suspected to be
contaminated, mark it for future inspection.
Not all discolorations of the grain are de facto contaminants. Mushroom mycelium exudes a
yellowish liquid metabolite that collects as droplets around the myceliated kernels of grain. As the
culture ages and the kernels are digested, more metabolic wastes are secreted. Although this secre-

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