The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Grain Culture/55

LIQUID INOCULATION TECHNIQUES
A highly effective technique for inoculating grain utilizes the suspension of fragmented mush-

room mycelia in sterile water. This mycelium enriched solution, containing hundreds of minute
cellular chains, is then injected into a jar of sterilized grain. As this water seeps down through the
grain, mycelial fragments are evenly distributed, each one of which becomes a point of inoculation.
For several days little or no sign of growth may be apparent. On the fourth to fifth day after injection,
given optimum incubation temperatures, sites of actively growing mycelium become visible. In a
matter of hours, these zones enlarge and the grain soon becomes engulfed with mycelium. Using

the liquid inoculation technique eliminates the need for repeated shaking, and a single plate of
mycelium can inoculate up to 1 00 jars, more than ten times the number inoculated by the traditional transfer method. There are-several ways to suspend mycelium in water, two of which are described here.
The first method is quite simple. Using an autoclaved glass syringe, inject 30-50 ml. of sterilized water into a healthy culture. Then scrape the surface of the mycelial mat, drawing up as many
fragments of mycelium as possible. As little as 5 ml. of mycelial suspension adequately inoculates a
quart jar of grain.
The second method incoporates a blender with an autoclavable container-stirrer assembly.
(Several companies sell aluminum and stainless steel units specifically manufactured for liquid culture techniques—refer to the sources listed in the Appendix). Fill with water until two thirds to three
quarters full, cover with aluminum foil (if a tight fitting metal top is not handy), sterilize and allow to

cool to room temperature.
Under aseptic conditions, insert an entire agar culture of vigorously grown mycelium into the
sterilized stirrer by cutting it into four quadrants or into narrow strips. Because many contaminants
be
appear along the outer periphery of a culture dish, it is recommended that these regions not

used. Place all four quadrants or mycelial strips into the liquid. Turn on the blender at high speed for
no longer than 5 seconds. (Longer stirring times result not in the fragmentation of cell chains but in
the fracturing of individual cells. Such suspensions are inviable). Draw up 5-10 ml. of the mycelium
concentrate and inoculate an awaiting grain jar.
A further improvement on this technique calls for a 10:1 dilution of the concentrated mycelial

solution. inject 50 ml. of mycelial suspension into four vessels containing 450 ml. of sterilized

water. Narrow mouth quart mason jars are well suited to this technique. Gently shaking each jar will
help evenly distribute the mycelium. Next incoluate the grain jars with 1 0-1 5 milliliters of the diluted
solution. This method results in an exponential increase of liquid inoculum with the water acting as a
vehicle for carrying the mycelial fragments deep into the grain filled jar. This is only one technique
using water suspended fragments of mycelium. Undoubtedly, there will be further improvements as
mycophiles experiment and develop their own techniques.
When using metal lids a small 1-2 mm. hole can be drilled and then covered with tape. When
the sterilized containers are to be inoculated, remove the tape, insert the needle of syringe, inject the
suspension of mycelia and replace the tape. In this way, the aperture through which the inoculation

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