The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Sterile Technique and Agar Culture/35
duced by avoiding exploded grains (a consequence of excessive water) and buffering the pH to 6.5
using a combination of chalk (precipitated calcium carbonate) and gypsum (calcium sulfate).

Commercial Agaricus culfivators have long noted that the slower growing cottony mycelium is
inferior to the faster growing rhizomorphic mycelium. There is an apparent correlation between cottony mycelia on agar and the later occurrence of "stroma", a dense mat-like growth of mycelia on
the casing which rarely produces mushrooms. Furthermore, primordia frequently form along generatively oriented rhizomorphs but rarely on somatically disposed cottony mycelia. It is of interest to
mention that, under a microscope, the hyphae of a rhizomorphic mycelial network are larger and
branch less frequently than those of the cottony network.

Rhizomorphic mycelia run faster, form more primordia and in the final analysis yield more
mushrooms than cottony mycelia. One example of this is illustrated in Fig. 37. A single wedge of
mycelium was transferred to a petri dish and two distinct mycelial types grew from it. The stringy
sector formed abundant primordia while the cottony sector did not, an event common in agar
culture.

When a mycelium grows old it is said to be senescing. Senescent mycelium, like any aged plant
or animal, is far less vigorous and fertile than its counterpart. In general, a change from rhizomorphic to cottony looking mycelium should be a warning that strain degeneration has begun.
If at first a culture is predominantly rhizomorphic, and then it begins to sector, there are several
measures that can be undertaken to promote rhizomorphism and prevent the strain's degeneration.
1.

Propagate only rhizomorphic sectors and avoid cottony ones.

2. Alter the media regularly using the formulas described herein. Growing a strain on the

same agar formula is not recommended because the nutritional composition of the medium
exerts an selective influence on the ability of the mushroom mycelium to produce digestive
enzymes. By varying the media, the strain's enzyme system remains broadly based and the

mycelium is better suited for survival. Species vary greatly in their preferences. Unless
specific data is available, trial and error is the only recourse.
3. Only grow out the amount of mycelium needed for spawn production and return the strain
to storage when not in use. Do not expect mycelium that has been grown over several years

at optimum temperatures to resemble the primary culture from which it came. After so
many cell divisions and continual transfers, a sub-strain is likely to have been selected out,
one that may distantly resemble the original in both vitality, mycelial appearance and fruiting potential.
4. If efforts to preserve a vital strain fail, re-isolate new substrains from mulfispore germinations.

5. Another alternative is to continuously experiment with the creation of hybrid strains that are
formed from the mating of dikaryotic mycelia of two genetically distinct parents.
(Experiments with Agaricus brunnescens have shown, however, that most hybrids yield
less than both or one of the contributing strains. A minority of the hybrids resulted in more
productive strains.)

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