The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Sterile Technique and Agar Culture/31
Once the tissue shows signs of growth, if should be transferred to yet another media dish. If no
signs of contamination are evident, early transfer is not critical. If sporulating colonies of mold devel.
op adjacent to the growing mycelium, the culture should be promptly isolated. Continue transferring the mycelium away from the contaminants until a pure strain is established. Obviously, isolating
mycelia from a partially contaminated culture is more difficult than transferring from a pure one. The
mere attempt of isolating mycelia away from a nearby contaminant is fraught with the danger of
spreading its spores. Although undetectable to us, when the rim of a petri dish is lifted external air
rapidly enters and spores become airborne. Therefore, the sooner the cultivator is no longer dependent upon a partially contaminated culture dish, the easier it will be to maintain pure cultures. Keep
in mind that a strain isolated from a contaminated media dish can harbor spores although to the
unaided eye the culture may appear pure. Only when this contaminant laden mycelium is inoculated into sterile grain will these inherent bacteria and molds become evident.
To minimize contamination in the laboratory there are many measures one can undertake. The
physical ones such as the use of HEPA filters, asperated oil and glove boxes have already been discussed. One's attitude towards contamination and cleanliness is perhaps more important than the
installation of any piece of equipment. The authors have seen laboratories with high contamination
rates and closets that have had very little. Here are two general guidelines that should help many
first-time cultivators.
1. Give the first attempt at sterile culture the best effort. Everything should be clean: the lab;
clothes; tools; and especially the cultivator.
2. Once a pure culture has been established, make every attempt to preserve its purity. Save

only the cultures that show no signs of mold and bacteria. Throw away all contaminated
dishes, even though they may only be partially infected.
If failure greets one's first attempts at mushroom culture, do not despair. Only through practice
and experience will sterile culture techniques become fluent.
Agar culture is but one in a series of steps in the cultivation of mushrooms. By itself, agar media
is impractical for the production of mushrooms. The advantage of its use in mushroom culture is
that mycelial mass can be rapidly multiplied using the smallest fragments of tissue. Since contaminants can be readily observed on the flat two dimensional surface of a media filled petri dish, it is
fairly easy to recognize and maintain pure cultures.

SECTORING: STRAIN SELECTION

AND DEVELOPMENT
As mycelium grows out on a nutrient agar, it can display a remarkable diversity of forms. Some
mycelia are fairly uniform in appearance; others can be polymorphous at first and then suddenly develop into a homogeneous looking mycelia. This is the nature of mushroom mycelia—to constantly
change and evolve.

When a mycelium grows from a single inoculation site and several divergent types appear, if is

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