The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Sterile Technique and Agar Culture/25
25-250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask stopped with cotton and covered with aluminum foil. Carefully touch
some spores onto a scalpel and insert into sterile water. Tightly seal and let stand for 6-12 hours.
After this period draw up several milliliters of this spore solution with the eye dropper, syringe or
pipette and inoculate several plates with one or two drops. Keep in mind that if the original spore
print was taken under unsanitary conditions, this technique just as likely favors contaminant spores
as the spores of mushrooms.

Characteristics of the Mushroom Mycelium
With either method of inoculation, spore germination and any initial stages of contamination
should be evident in three to seven days. Germinating spores are thread-like strands of cells emanating from a central point of origin. These mycelial strands appear grayish and diffuse at first and soon

become whitish as more hyphae divide, grow and spread through the medium.

The mycelia of most species, particularly Agaricus, Coprinus, Lentinus, Panaeolus and
Psilocybe are grayish to whitish in color. Other mushroom species have variously pigmented mycelia. Lepista nuda can have a remarkable purplish blue mycelium; Psi/ocybe tampanensis is often
multi-colored with brownish hues. Keep in mind, however, that color varies with the strain and the
media upon which the mycelium is grown. Another aspect of the mycelial appearance is its type of
growth, whether it is aerial or appressed, cottony or rhizomorphic. Aerial mycelium can be species
related or often it is a function of high humidity. Appressed mycelium can also be a species specific
character or it can be the result of dry conditions. The subject of mycelial types is discussed in
greater detail under the sub-chapter Sectoring. (See Color Photos 1 -4).

Once the mushroom mycelium has been identified, sites of germinating spores should be
transferred to new media dishes. In this way the cultivator is selectively isolating mushroom mycelia
and will soon establish a pure culture free of contamination. If contamination appears at the same
time, cut out segments of the emerging mushroom mycelia away from the contaminant colonies.
Since many of the common contaminants are sporulating molds, be careful not to jolt the culture or
to do anything that might spread their spores. And be sure the scalpel is cool before cutting into the
agar media. A hot scalpel causes an explosive burst of vapor which in the microcosm of the petri
dish easily liberates spores of neighboring molds.

Ramifications of Multispore Culture
Multispore culture is the least difficult method of obtaining a viable if not absolutely pure strain.
In the germination of such a multitude of spores, one in fact creates many strains, some incompatible with others and each potentially different in the manner and degree to which they fruit under artificial conditions. This mixture of strains can have a limiting effect on total yields, with the less productive strains inhibiting the activity of more productive ones. In general, strains created from spores
have a high probability of resembling their parents. if those parents have been domesticated and
fruit well under laboratory conditions, their progeny can be expected to behave similarly. In contrast,

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