The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Appendix Ill: Effects of Bacteria on Fruiting/355
on compost than in wet casing atone. Peak activity occurred ten days after application. Dry casings,
as one would expect, had significantly fewer bacteria. Continuing with this work, Hayes and Nair
showed that the addition of 5% spawned compost into the casing layer resulted in the largest increase in P. putida populations, the most pinheads and the greatest overall yields.

Stanek (1974), a Czech mycologist, studied the bacteria associated directly with mushroom
mycelium, in the zone he catted the "hyphosphere". These hyphosphere bacteria differed from
other bacteria in that they were predominantly Gram-negative (as is Pseudomonas putida) and they
utilized nitrogenous compounds secreted by the mycelium. Both the growth of mycelia and bacteria
were stimulated by extracts of one another, suggesting a mutually enhancing relationship much like
the one between nitrogen fixing bacteria and the roots of many plants. Stanek further determined
that mycelium infected with bacteria grew more quickly through compost and would, therefore, give

mushroom mycelium a decided advantage over other competing microorganisms. From this
author's experience (Stamets') in the course of studying the hyphosphere of several Psilocybe
species, bacteria are not uncommon and may play a similarly beneficial role.
Not all strains of Pseudomonas putida cause pinheads to form in Agaricus brunnescens, nor
do all strains of mushrooms respond similarly to the presence of selected bacteria. The two proven
stimulative strains, ATCC #1 2633 and #1 741 9, are deposited with the American Type Culture
Collection. Some strains of Pseudomonas putida have no effect whatsoever, while others are most
stimulative if the bacterial colonies are grown on a 2.5% acetone based liquid media (see Eger,

1972). After incubating for 10 days at 25°C. in 30-40 ml. of nutrient broth, a density of
1,000,000 to 2,000,000 cells/milliliter is achieved. Ten milliliters of this concentrated solution is
recommended for each square meter of casing surface. (For ease of application, one milliliter of
concentrate can be diluted in 100 milliliters of sterilized water).
Eger, Hayes and Nair have demonstrated the stimulative effect of Pseuclomonas put Ida. But
why Pseudomonas putida stimulates primordia formation is a question yet unanswered. Some believe its effect is indirect, removing chelating compounds that inhibit mushroom initiation. Others
(Fritsche, 1 981; Visscher, 1 981) suspect its influence is more direct and biologically oriented.

Pseudomonas putida is not the only microorganism implicated in the phenomenon of fruiting.
Park and Agnihorti (1 969) published a short note where they compared bacteria introduced to soils
that had been autoclaved, gamma sterilized and untreated. Three other bacteria (Bacillus
megaterium, Arthrobacter terregens and Rhizobium meliloti) stimulated abundant fruitbody formation and development on sterilized soils. (Interestingly, these same nitrogen fixing bacteria are presently being marketed to farmers for increasing crop production). In yet another study, Curfo and
Favelli (1 972) examined a gamut of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and microalgae) and their effect on potentiafing yields. Again, Bacillus megaterium significantly increased mushroom forma-

tion. Even more remarkably Scenedesmus quadricauda (a common pond dwelling blue-green
alga) enhanced production by nearly 60% over and above the control. This alga seemed to have a
particularly influencial effect on the number of primordia generated on the first flush. Although as
exciting as these findings may at first appear, it must be noted that other researchers have not yet
confirmed the findings of Curfo and Favelli. For reasons not presently understood, activated char-

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