The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
354/Appendix Ill: Effects of Bacteria on Fruiting
mycelial network and then produce a specialized fruitbody. This series of events is made less likely
by poor weather conditions and/or competing microorganisms. The brevity of the generative phase
in the mushroom life cycle suggests a highly advanced metabolic system, one that has evolved
despite its fiercely competitive environment.
The fact that Agaricus brunnescens fails to fruit on sterilized substrates has been well documented. It has been shown that if the casing layer is sterilized and applied to grain or compost,
mushrooms do not form. On the other hand, if the casing layer is only pasteurized or left untreated,
fruiting is unhindered. Obviously something in the peat based casing is essential to the fructification
process.

Past investigations have shown the significance of bacteria in mushroom growth. It should not
be surprising then to learn that some of these microorganisms are not harmful to the mushroom
plant, but beneficial. Under conditions of high humidity, CO2 and acetone, bacterial populations
spiral. In a way not presently understood, some of these bacteria act as a trigger to fruiting. The
prevalence of bacteria on hyphac may explain why most dung dwelling mushrooms can be fruited
with comparative ease on basic enriched agar media while wood and soil inhabitors can not. The association of these two organisms, a fungus and a bacterium, reflects a tacit agreement for mutual co-

existence, one perhaps negotiated by evolutionary necessity.
In 1 956 Dr. Takashi Urayama first noted the stimulative influence of bacteria on the fruiting of
Psilocybe coprophila. (Actually he misidentified the mushroom species as P. panaeoliformis). In
that paper and ones soon thereafter (Urayama 1960, 1961 and 1967), he reported the isolation of
a bacterium he thought responsible for fruiting in not only Psilocybe "panaeolilormis" but also in
Agaricus brunnescens. He named that bacterium Bacillus psilocybe nom. prov. Apparently unaware of Urayama's work, a German mycologisf named Eger similarly isolated a bacterium stimulative to pinhead formation. She first published her notes in 1 959. For years this bacterium was

known as "Eger's Bacterium" until Hayes (1 969) identified the organism in question as
Pseudomonas pufida. This identification set in motion other research projects whose conclusions
revealed a subtle but dynamic interplay between microflora in the casing layer and the mushroom
mycelium.
Mushroom mycelium releases several metabolifes as if grows through a substrate, most importantly CO2. Other compounds identified by researchers as metabolic waste products include acetone, ethanol and ethylene. Upon casing, the release of volatile metabolites from the spawned compost or grain is drastically inhibited. The casing layer interferes with the free diffusion of acetone, and
hence its concentrations in the casing biosphere increase. Since Pseudomonas putida grows on
media whose sole carbon source is acetone or ethanol (2.5%), cultivators can adopt measures that
will enhance the levels of these Pseudomonas propagating compounds in the casing layer. Eger

first suggested a practical application for commercial cultivators:

"In order to prove our hypothesis, freshly prepared, moist casing casing soil of a commercial
mushroom plant should be incubated with acetone for several days apart from mushroom cultures.
If acetone has a stimulative effect on the microflora that induces fructification, soil treated with acetone should allow earlier pinhead formation than control samples." (Eger, 1 972, pp. 723.)
Two years later Hayes and Nair (1974) noted that more bacteria flourish in wet casings placed

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