The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
336/Mushroom Genetics

REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES
The two aforementioned modes of reproduction lead to three primary reproductive strategies.
These are the primary use of asexual reproduction, the primary use of sexual reproduction and the
sequential or seasonal use of both methods of reproduction.
1. Asexual (mitotic) reproduction allows an organism to produce large numbers of offspring in
a very short period of time. This makes possible the rapid exploitation of any ecological niche which
becomes available. This strategy is used by bacteria, yeasts, many molds (Fungi Imperfecti) and a
surprising number of plants.

2. Sexual reproduction is not as rapid, since meiosis, gamete production and fusion and zygote growth are relatively slow processes. The progeny, however, have built-in variation and are capable of exploiting a wider assortment of niches than the parents. This strategy is used by larger organisms which tend to live for a longer time than those which are primarily asexual. Examples of organisms using this strategy are polypores, most plants and all large animals.
3. Combining sexual and asexual reproductions in different portions of the life cycle results in
a highly effective strategy. This method is utilized by most lower plants and most fungi. In this strategy, when a suitable niche is found, asexual reproduction allows it to be rapidly filled and exploited.
When that niche has been populated and nutrients become scarce, sexual reproduction is triggered.
As well as releasing a number of varied progeny to the environment, sexually produced spores are

usually more resistant to the harsh environmental conditions than mitotically produced spores.
Often they are specifically adapted to lasting through winter or through a period of dryness, conditions not conducive to the growth of fungi.

Asexual Reproduction in the Fungi
Asexual reproduction in the fungi takes many forms, including buds, conidia, sporangiospores
and fragmentation products.
Yeasts reproduce by budding, which is the constant growth of new cells from the surface of a

mother cell. The new cells literally "blow out" of the mother cell wall like a balloon.
Conidia are mitotic spores which are continuously produced within or upon special structures

called conidiogenous cells. Examples of conidial fungi are represented by Penici/lium and
Aspergillus molds, the fungi which attack spoiled foodstuffs, the downy and powdery mildew which
attack garden plants, and the hundreds of genera which are involved in the breaddown and recycling of debris and litter in nature.

Sporangiospores (spores formed in batches within saclike structures called sporangia) are
found in the water molds and the Zygomycetes. Rhizopus, which is often seen on breads and strawberries, reproduces in this manner.

A common mode of asexual reproduction is for portions of vegetative mycelium to thicken and
form heavy walls and septae. These reinforced hyphal fragments then break apart and are distributed by natural processes. These vegetative propagules are called by many names, including ar-

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