The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Culture/273

CRYPTOCOCCUS
Class: Fungi imperlecti
Order: Cn)Jptococcales

Family: Cn,iptococcaceae

Common Names: The Yellowish Brown
The Carcinogenic Yeast.
Greek Root: From "kryptos" meaning hidden and "kokkus" or berry, for the form of

Yeast;

the conidia.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurence: Ubiquitous and common. Cnjptococcus species

are mostly saprophytic on plant debris, in
soils, cereal grains and on bird (pigeon or
chicken) droppings.

Medium Through Which Contamina•
tion Is Spread: Air and pigeon and/or

Figure 198 Drawing of spore formation typical of Cryptococcus and many yeasts.

chicken wastes.

Measures of Control: Good hygienic practices; elimination of high humidity pockets; removal of
supportive substrates; and filtration of air through micron filters.
Macroscopic Appearance: A spherical yeast not forming a pseudomycelium, encapsulated by a
cream to brown colored mucus.
Microscopic Characteristics: Conidia (spores) vary in size, 4-20 microns in diameter; ovoid; reproducing through simple budding; not forming a true mycelium; and lacking a specialized sporeforming structure. In some species there can be a simple ascus (a "sack") enclosing a single spore.
Cn,'ptococcus species are Gram-positive.

History, Use and/or Medical Implications: A non-fermenting yeast with alliances to the
Ascomycetes, Cnjptococcus neoformans (Sanf.) Vuill. causes a deadly disease in animals and
humans called cryptococcosis, otherwise known as "Torula meningitis" or "yeast meningitis". This
yeast attacks and reproduces in the central nervous system, particularly in the brain and spinal fluid.
Symptoms begin with a stiff neck and headache and end in total or partial blindness, paralysis, coma
and respiratory failure. Less severe symptoms occur in other parts of the body, for which there is a

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