The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Cultur-e/259

ASPERGILLUS
Class: Fungi Imperfecti

Order: Moniliales
Family: Eurotiaceae

Common Name: Green Mold; Yellow
Mold; Black Mold

Latin Root: From "aspergilliformis" which
means brush-shaped in reference to the
shape of the conidiophore.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence:
Very common in agar and grain culture, and

in compost making. Found on most any
organic substrate, Aspergillus prefers a near
neutral to slightly basic pH. Well used
wooden trays and shelves for holding compost are frequent habitats for this contaminant
in the growing house.

Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air.

Figure 189

Drawing of the characteristic

sporu lating structure of Aspergillus.

Measures of Control: Good hygienic practices; removing supportive substrates, especially food
residues and spent compost; and filtration of air through micron filters.

Macroscopic Appearance: Species range in color from yellow to green to black. Most frequently, Aspergillus species are greenish and similar to Penici/lium. Aspergillus niger, as its name implies, is black; Aspergillus flavus is yellow; Aspergillus clavatus is
blue-green; Aspergillus
fumigatus is grayish green; and Aspergillus veriscolor exhibits a variety of colors (greenish to
pinkish to yellowish). These molds, like many others, change in color and appearance according to
the medium on which they occur. Several species are thermophilic.

Microscopic Characteristics: Sporu lating structure tall, unbranched, stalk-like, supporting at its
apex a spherical head to which linearly arranged chains of single celled spores (conidia), measuring
3-5 microns, are attached.

History, Use and/or Medical Implications: Some species toxic. Aspergillus flavus, a yellow to
yellowish green species, produces the deadly aflatoxins. A. flavus attacks cottonseed meals, peanuts
and other seeds high in oil that have been stored in hot, damp environments. Of all the biologically

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor