The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Culture/255

STREPTOMYCES
Class: Actinomyces
Order: Actinomyce ta/es
Family: Streptomycetaceae

Common Name: Firefang.
Greek Root: From "strepto" meaning
twisted and "myces" or fungus, in reference
to the twisting and branching filaments that
give rise to spores.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence: Ubiquitous on straw, manures and soil. Streptomyces is a predominant microoganism in the

compost pile, thriving between 115-135°F.
and preferring aerobic zones.

Medium Through Which Contamination
Is Spread: Primarily air; secondarily from
materials used in composting. Streptomyces
are naturally present in all soils.

Figure 186

Drawing of spore producing

cells of Streptomyces.

Measures of Control: Generally no controls are necessary during compost preparation, nor desired.
General hygienic practices prevent this bacterium from becoming a problem contaminant in the laboratory.

Macroscopic Appearance: Grayish to whitish specked colonies, readily apparent on composted
straw. On grain, Streptomyces has a delicate whitish mycelium and is powdery in form.

Microscopic Characteristics: Composed of an extensive, fine hyphal network, often branching,
coiied and twisted. The hyphae in Streptomyces do not fragment into spores as in Actinomyces but
form a chain-like structure of aerial hyphae called a sporophore from which cells evolve terminally.
The filamentous hyphae and spores measure only 1 micron in diameter. Within each cell, no well defined nucleus is discernible. Streptomyces lack differentiated spore-producing bodies. hs spores are
smooth or spiny.

History, Use, and/or Medical Implications: Streptomyces represents 80% of all actinomycetes
which inhabit mushroom compost and is selected for its beneficial properties during Phase II. (See
Chapter V).
Streptomyces griseus is the source of the antibiotic streptomycin, first discovered by Waksman in

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