The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Culture/251
27 psi) is sufficient to neutralize grain heavily infested with endospore forming bacteria. If converting a standard home pressure cooker for this purpose, contact the manufacturer about stress limitations and follow all safety recommendations.

If "sterilized" rye grain spontaneously contaminates with bacteria before inoculation and the
grain is the cause, it is best to replace the grain with a cleaner one than to undergo the expense and
time of double sterilization. Some spawn laboratories regularly precook their grain for approximately 2 hours in water at a low boil. Excess water is allowed to drain from the grains which are then
placed into the spawn container and sterilized at standard time and pressure.
The most practical method for eliminating bacterial endospores involves soaking the grain at
room temperature 24 hours prior to sterilization. Endospores, if viable, will germinate within that
time frame and then be susceptible to standard sterilization procedures. And, new endospores won't

form in the moist environment of the resting jar of grain.
Bacillus subtilis var. mucoides is the common bacterium responsible for spoiling spawn
media. If allowed to proliferate, this contaminant wreaks havoc in a spawn laboratory, necessitating
a complete shut-down of operations. Spores and even strains of mushroom mycelium can become
hosts for Bacillus, carrying bacteria on their hyphae (see Figs. 181 & 182), and then contaminating
any media onto which the mushroom mycelia is transferred.

Many bacteria are rod-shaped and the term bacillus has been loosely used to describe them.
The genus concept of Bacillus, however, has been narrowed considerably with time; Bacillus is
now defined as Gram positive rod-like, aerobic bacteria that form spores.

According to Park and Agnihotri (1 969), Bacillus megaterium stimulates primordia formation
in certain strains of Agaricus brunnescens (bisporus). (See Appendix II for a futher discussion on
the influence of bacteria on fruiting). Another species, Bacillus t/iermouibricolous, if introduced at
spawning, inhibits the growth of competitor molds in rice bran/sawdust spawn prepared for shiitake
cultivation according to Steineck (1 973).
See Also Pseudomonas.

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