The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
248/The Mushroom Cultivator

BACILLUS
Class: Schizomycefes
Order: Eubacteriales
Family: Bacillaceae
Common Name: Wet Spot; Sour Rot.

Latin Root: From "bacilliformis" meaning
rod-like,

in

reference to its characteristic

shape.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence: Living within a broad range of habitats. Bacillus

grows on almost anything organic that is
moist and is surrounded by oxygen. It is particularly common in soils.

Figure 179 Drawing of endospore forming
Bacillus cells as they appear through a microscope and without special stains.

Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Primarily through the air;
secondarily through water, grain, soils, composts, insects, tools and workers.

Measures of Control: Air filtration through high efficiency particulate air filters; thorough sterilization of grain; and proper storage and use of relatively "clean" grains. The addition of antibiotics to
the
agar media (gentamycin sulfate, penicillin, streptomycin, aureomycin, etc.) hinders or prevents

growth of these contaminants. Endospores are neutralized by exposure to moist heat, such as the
steam generated within a pressure cooker at temperatures of 250 °F. and 1 5 psi pressure for a full
hour. Temperatures as low as 1 40°F. kill the vegetative parent cells but not the endospores they
form.
Macroscopic Appearance: A dull gray to mucus-like brownish slime characterized by a strong
but foul odor variously described as smelling like rotting apples, dirty socks or burnt bacon. Bacillus

makes uncolonized grain appear excessively wet, hence the name "Wet Spot". Pallid to whitish
ridges along the margins of individual grain kernels characterize this contaminant.
Microscopic Characteristics: Rod-like or cylindrical in shape, measuring 0.2-1 .2 microns in diameter and 1 -5 microns in length. When wet mounts are viewed through a microscope, Bacilli excitedly wriggle back and forth. Species move by the vibrating action of flagella ("hairs") that outline
each cell. These flagella are difficult to observe microscopically without using specific staining techniques. Bacilli are encapsulated by a thin but firm slime and conglomerations of cells give infected

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