The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
246/The Mushroom Cultivator

ACTI NOMYCES
Class: Actinomyces
Order: Actinomycetales
Family: Actinomycetaceae

Common Name: Firefang.
Greek Root: From "actino" meaning rayed
or star-like and "myces" or fungus, in reference to its characteristic appearance when
colonizing straw or straw/manure compost.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence:
Many species thermophilic; thriving in the
115-135°F. temperature range and commonly found in decomposing straw, horse
and cow manures. Actinomyces are important soil constituents. They thrive in aerobic,
well prepared mushroom composts.

Medium Through Which ContaminaFigure 178

Drawing of Actinomyces.

tion Is Spread: Primarily air; secondarily the
straw used in compost preparation.

Measures of Control: Generally no controls are necessary during compost preparation. However,
Actinomyces can cause spontaneous combustion in wet, compacted straw. Covering stored baled
straw from excess wafer absorption should be adequate protection from Actinomyces and the thermogenic reactions they cause.
Macroscopic Appearance: Grayish to whitish speckled colonies, readily apparent on dark cornposted straw.

Microscopic Characteristics: Composed of an extensive, fine hyphal network that rarely
branches. Rod-like spores form when the filaments break at the cell wall junctions. The filamentous
hyphae and spores are minute, measuring only 1 micron in diameter. Within each cell, no well defined nucleus is discernible. Lacking differentiated spore-producing bodies, Actinomyces are Grampositive.

History, Use, and/or Medical Implications: Few species pathogenic. Amongst agricultural
workers in the same position, males are three times more susceptible to this bacterium than females
(see Cruickshank etal., 1973). Two notable species causing serious diseases (actinornycosis) of the
skin and oral cavity in humans are Actinomyces bovis and Actinomyces jsrae/ii. Generally, these

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