The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Culfure/245
on the surfaces of spores. They are detectable only through transmission electron microscopy or
ultracentrifuging.

History, Use and/or Medical Implications: Responsible for many plant, animal and human diseases. Typically viruses are associated with larger carrier particles, particularly bacteria.
Comments: Virus is most likely introduced during or directly after spawning. Infected farms experience losses up to 70%. First reported from Europe, measures of control and prevention have been
developed and successfully tested by the Dutch. Most notably, virus spreads by attaching itself to
mushroom spores which then become airborne. Virus also spreads through the contact of healthy
mycelia with diseased mycelia. Afflicted mushrooms are soon exploited by a host of other parasites,
making a late and accurate diagnosis of this contaminant difficult.
Undoubtedly, virus is the cause of what many have noted as "strain degeneration". Heat treatment of infected strains grown on enriched agar media at 95 O F. for three weeks has been suggested as one remedy for curing diseased mycelia. (See Candy and Hollings, 1 962 and Rasmussen

et al., 1972).
Van Zaayen (1 979) and others have noted that Agaricus biforquis seems resistant to virus dis-

ease even when inoculated with in vitro particles. Another species of Agaricus, called Agaricus
arvensis, exhibits similar virus resistant qualities.
Virus-like particles have also been found in Lentinus edodes by Mon et alia (1979) but do not
adversely affect fruitbody formation or development. These same researchers reported that this species' viruses can not be transmitted to other mushrooms or plants, a fact they attributed to the interferon producing properties of the shiitake mushroom. No work with infected strains of Psilocybe are

known. Only a fraction of wild mushrooms harbor virus-like particles.

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