The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
244/The Mushroom Cultivator

VIRUS
Common Name: Die-back Disease;

La

France Disease, Mummy.

Habitat and Frequency of Occurence:
An infrequent and difficult to detect disease.
Their habitats are other larger particles or organisms.

Medium through which contamination
is spread: Primarily from infected mycelium
or from the spores of diseased mushrooms.
Dieleman-van Zaayen (1972) found that the
most common way virus spreads is through

the anastomosing ("merging") of healthy
mycelia with infected mycelia that was left-

over from previous crops. Once anastomosed, the virus particles spread throughout
the mycelial network of the new mycelium.

Measures of Control: Thorough disinfection of the growing room between crop rotations by
F.; the installation of high efficiency spore filters to screen
steam heating for 12 hours at
particulates exiting the growing environment; the disinfection of floors and hallways leading to and
from the growing room with 2% chlorine solution; and picking diseased mushrooms while the veil
is intact before spores have the opportunity to spred. Isolation of infected crops from adjacent rooms
or those newly spawned helps retard the spread of this disease. Other measures of control include
the placement of disinfectant floor mats to prevent the tracking in of virus-carrying particles on worker's shoes and the maintenance of strict hygienic practices at all times, particularly between crops.

Macroscopic Appearance: On nutrient agar media, infected mycelia slows or nearly abates in
its rate of growth as the disease progresses throughout the mycelial network. When running
through the casing layer, large zones one to three feet in diameter remain uncolonized. In some
cases the mycelia, once present, disappears from the surface. Fruitbodies may not form at all, or
when they do, the mushrooms are typically deformed (dwarfed or aborted), often with watery or
splitting stems, and brown rot. The caps prematurely expand to plane. Virus infected cultures can
exhibit any combination of the above described symptoms.
Microscopic Characteristics: Particles typically ovoid to polyhedral, measuring 25 or 34 nanometers. Elongated particles measure 1 9-50 nanometers. Virus particles dwell within hyphal cells or

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