The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
238/The Mushroom Cultivator
What follows is a rudimentary key to the major contaminant groups encountered in mushroom
cultivation with the exception of insects and viruses which are discussed in later sections. Though
thousands of species of fungi exist in nature, only a small fraction are repeatedly seen in the course
of mushroom culture. Hence, this key is limited to that small sphere of microorganisms and does
not propose to be an all encompassing guide to the molds. Nevertheless, this key should prove to
be a valuable resource for anyone interested in improving their cultivation skills. Some contaminants are keyed out more than once if occurring in various habitats, or if exhibiting
color
changes. Since color has some emphasis in this key and that feature can be substrate specific, the
authors presume the agar medium employed is 2% malt based, the spawn carrier is rye grain or
sawdust/bran, and the fruiting substrate is one outlined in this book.
Once led to a particular genus, refer to its description. If in doubt, a quick look under a medium
power (400 X) microscope should readily discern one contaminant from another. If the contaminant can be identified but its source can not, turn the chapter entitled Cultivation Problems and
Their Solutions. One or more of the common names have been listed under each competitor.
Good luck, be meticulous in your observations and strictly adhere to the recommended measures of
control.

Contaminants encompassed by this key:
C'ladospori urn
Alfernaria
Aspergi//us
C'oprinus
Bacillus
Dacty/iurn
Botiytis
Epicoccurn
Chaetorniurn
Fusari urn
Chiysosporiurn Geotrich urn

Mon//ia

Mucor
Mvcelia St er//ia

Mycogone
Neurospora

Papulospora
Pen/c//I/urn
Pseudornonas
Rhizopus
Scopu/ariopsis

Sepedoniurn
Trichoderrna
Trichotheciurn
Verticilliurn
Yeasts

A KEY TO THE COMMON CONTAMINANTS IN MUSHROOM CULTURE
This key is easy to use. Simply follow the key lead that best descibes the contaminant at hand.
When the key terminates at a specific contaminant, turn to the descriptions immediately following
this key and then refer to the photographs and any related genus mentioned. To confirm the identity
of any contaminant, compare its sporulating structures with the accompanying microscopic illustra-

tions and/or micrographs.

la

Contaminant parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (a pathogen)

1b

2

Contaminant not parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (an indicator)

7

2a

Contaminant causing mushrooms to become watery, slimy,
or to have lesions from which a liquid oozes but not covered
3
with a powdery or downy mycelium

2b

Contaminant not as above but covering mushrooms with a
fine powdery or mildew-like mycelium
4

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