The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Introduction to Mushroom Culture/il
On the surface of the basidia, arm-like projections called sterigmatae arise through which
these nuclei then migrate. In most species four spores form at the tips of these projections. The
spores continue to develop until they are forcefully liberated from the basidia and propelled into free
space. The mechanism for spore release has not yet been proven. But, the model most widely accepted within the mycological community is one where a "gas bubble" forms at the junction of the
spore and the sterigmafa. This gas bubble inflates, violently explodes and jettisons the spore into the
cavity between the gills where it is taken away by air currents. Most commonly, sets of opposing
spores are released in this manner. With spore release, the life cycle is completed.
Not all mushroom species have basidia that produce four haploid spores. Agaricus
brunnescens (= Agaricus bisporus), the common button mushroom, has basidia with two diploid
(2N) spores. This means each spore can evolve into a mycelium that is fully capable of producing
mushrooms. Agaricus brunnescens is one example of a diploid bipolar species. Some Copelandian
Panaeoli (the strongly bluing species in the genus Panaeolus) are two spored and have mating
properties similar to Agaricus brunnescens. Other mushrooom species have exclusively three
spored basidia; some have five spored basidia; and a few, like the cqmmon Chantarelle, have as

many as eight spores per basidium!
An awareness of the life cycle will greatly aid beginning cultivators in their initial attempts to
cultivate mushrooms. Once a basic understanding of mushroom culture and the life processes of
these organisms is achieved, cultivators can progress to more advanced subjects like genetics, strain
selection and breeding. This wholistic approach increases the depth of one's understanding and
facilitates development of innovative approaches to mushroom cultivation.

Figure 11, 12 & 13 Scanning electron micrographs showing the development ot the
basidium and spores in Ramaria Ion gispora, a coral fungus.

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