The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Growing Parameters for Various Mushroom Species/215

Pinhead Initiation:
Relative Humidity: 95 + %.
Air Temperature: 82-88 °F.
Duration: 4 days.
C02: less than 1000 ppm.
Fresh Air Exchanges: 2-4 per hour.
Light: Diffuse natural or direct grow-light fluorescent for 12-18 hours per day.
Watering: Regular misting once to twice daily.

Cropping:
Relative Humidity: 85-92%.
Air Temperature: 82-88 °F.
Duration: 5-7 weeks.
C02: less than 600 ppm.
Fresh Air Exchanges: 2-4 per hour or sufficient to meet CO2 and/or cooling requirements.
Harvest Stage: Directly before rupturing of the universal veil.
Flushing tnt e,vals: 5-10 days.
Light: Same as above.
Watering: Regular misting to prevent caps from cracking and to keep resting pinheads viable.
Yield Potential: Average commercial yields on rice straw are 22-28 kilograms of fresh mush-

rooms per 100 kilograms of dry straw. Optimum yields on cotton waste compost are 25-35
kilograms per 1 00 kilograms of substrate. Maximum yields are nearly 45 kilograms on cotton
waste compost.

Moisture Content of Mushrooms: 88-90% water; 10-12% dry matter.
Nutritional Content: Crude protein is reported at 21 .2 % of dry weight; 91 milligrams of niacin
per 1 00 grams dry weight.
Comments: In contrast to other species growing on straw, this mushroom does not compare favorably in terms of yield. The smaller crop figures are probably a result of the early picking of the
mushroom fruitbodies, when they are most flavorful.
Several researchers have noted the difficulty of maintaining high yielding strains of this species
for any length of time. Its mycelium seems to have a limited transfer potential and should be stored
at moderate temperatures (50 °F.). Cultures are frequently renewed through multispore germinations.

Volvariella volvacea is primarily grown in the Orient and is a warmth loving mushroom.

Genetic Characteristics: Basidia tetrapolar, producing 4 haploid spores; primary homothallic.
Clamp connections are present. Chiamydospores form. See Chapter XV.

For more information consult:
S.T. Chang, 1 972. "The Chinese Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea): Morphology, Cytology,

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