The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
214/The Mushroom Cultivator

SPECIES: Volvariella volvacea (Bull. cx Fr.) Sing.
STRAINS: Many strains of V. volvacea are available from commercial and private stocks. The
American Type Culture Collection, which sells cultures to educational organizations and research

facilities, has stock cultures of several wild and domesticated strains. Several commercial companies
also sell strains of this species.
COMMON NAMES: The Paddy Straw Mushroom; The Chinese Mushroom.

LATIN ROOT: Volvariella is the conjunction of two words: "volvatus" which means having a

volva or cup-like sheath and the suffix "-ellus" denoting smallness in size. The species name
volvacea shares the same root as the genus.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Mushrooms whitish at first, becoming a dark tan as the veil tears and
eventually a pale tan with age. Fruitbodies are relatively small when young, enveloped by a sheathsack at
like universal veil, soon breaking as the fruitbodies mature and leaving an irregular
hemispherical
to
convex
and
expanding
to
the base of the stem. The cap is egg shaped at first, soon
plane with age. Its spores are pinkish to pinkish brown in mass.

NATURAL HABITAT: Commonly occurring in decomposing straw in the Orient and in other
subtropical regions of the world.

GROWTH PARAMETERS
Mycelial Types: Fast growing rhizomorphic to slow cottony mycelia noted. The color is typically
white to grayish white.
Spawn Medium: Rice straw or rye grain. See Chapter III.
Fruiting Substrate and Method of Preparation: Traditionally grown on rice straw that has been
composted for 1 -2 days. More recently Hu (1 974) found that a mixture of cotton wastes supplemented with wheat bran and calcium carbonate (5% and 5-6% by weight, respectively) and cornposted for 3 days, pasteurized for 2 hours at 1 40 ° F., conditioned for 8 hours at 1 25 0 F. and then
gradually lowered to 77°F. over a 8-12 hour period, produced a higher yielding substrate than that
of others previously used. A moisture content of 65-70% is recommended for rice straw and 70%
for cotton waste mixtures. Chang (1 978) recommended a combination of the two—with the rice

straw/cotton waste in a proportion of 2:1 or 1:1 by weight.

Spawn Run:
Relative Humidity: 90 + %.
Substrate Temperature: Fastest growth at 88-95 °F.
Duration: 4-6 days for thorough colonization.

C02: 5000-10,000 ppm.
Fresh Air Exchanges: 0 per hour.
Light Requirements: Incubation in total darkness.

Type of Casing: None needed.

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