The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Environmental Factors/ 153

Figure 141 Bacterial blotch parasitizing Agaricus
brunnescens.

Figure 142 Characteristic phototropic response
of Psilocybe cubensis toward light.
growth has been slowed, the maturing mushrooms create more carbon dioxide, the removal of
which requires a continuous supply of fresh air. The number of these air changes varies depending
upon the air/bed ratio and the CO2 requirement of the mushroom species being grown. Agaricus
bitorquis needs only half the amount of fresh air required by Agaricus brunnescens. A common
rate for Agaricus brunnescens is 4-6 changes per hour. For more CO2 tolerant species such as
Psilocybe cubensis, 2-3 changes per hour is sufficient. (The most accurate method for determining
fresh air requirements employs the multiple gas detector. This instrument measures CO2 content of
the air in parts per million (ppm), from 300 (natural level) up to 20,000 ppm. See Appendix for
sources.)

Because many mushrooms are sensitive to carbon dioxide, the physical development of the
mushroom can also be used as a guide. High CO2 environments produce long stems and small underdeveloped caps in Agaricus brunnescens and Pleurotus ostreatus. Pleurotus exhibits similar
symptoms in conditions of low light intensity.

In general, too much fresh air is preferable to insufficient air supply. However, fresh air displaces the existing room air which is then exhausted from the room. Unless this fresh air is preconditioned to meet the requirements of the species, one will be constantly disrupting the growing environment and thereby over-working the heating and humidification systems. For this reason the air
circulation system should be designed to recirculate the room air. This is accomplished by a mixing
box with an adjustable damper that proportions fresh and recirculated air. In this regard, CO2 tolerant species give the grower a distinct advantage in maintaining the correct environment because
they need less fresh air for growth.
An important effect of air circulation and fresh air supply is the evaporation of moisture from the

cropping surface. Excessive humidity without adequate air movement and evaporation retards
mushroom development. Saturated stagnant air pockets are also breeding areas for contaminants

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