The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Strategies for Mushroom Formation/141

PRIMORDIA FORMATION PROCEDURES
Agaricus brunnescens culture illustrates the interplay of environmental factors in pinhead initiation. It serves as a useful model for setting primordia in many species, especially those using a casing layer. In each of the following stages, the main considerations are highlighted and then discussed in detail. Although Agaricus does not require light, and since most cultivated mushrooms
do, this requirement has been listed as the last parameter.

Stage I: Preparation
Following its application, the casing is conditioned to allow even mycelial growth into it. Once
mycelial growth is well established, the casing layer microclimate and the growing room are carefully managed to meet the following requirements.

1. The casing layer is at optimum moisture capacity.

2. The casing layer surface is rough and porous.

3. The relative humidity of the growing room's air is 95%.
4. The substrate is incubated in total darkness.
During the casing colonization period, the casing layer is being conditioned for pinhead initiation. Gradually, the moisture content is brought up to the optimum and a microclimate with high
relative humidity is carefully maintained. Water in the casing moves by capillary action to the surface
where it is drawn into the air by evaporation. This constant movement slowly depletes the casing of
the moisture needed to protect pinhead development. Therefore, in conjunction with an optimum

casing moisture level, the relative humidity of the room must be held at 95%. Lower humidities
must be accompanied by light but regular waterings. The higher the humidity (rH), the less water
will be lost to evaporation.
Given optimum moisture conditions in and directly above the casing layer, the next step is to
prepare the casing surface. Whether by initial application or by ruffling at a later time, the casing surface should be rough and open—with minute mountains and valleys. A rough open casing has
more surface area where pinheads can form, provides a humid environment conducive to that formation and allows the diffusion of metabolic gases.

Stage II: Environmental Transition—The Prelude to Setting Primordia
Pinhead initiation techniques should begin when the mycelium reaches the valleys of the casing surface. Once the mycelium is clearly established in the valleys, the cultivator can begin the first

steps leading to the setting of pinheads. Within this one to two day period, the
1.

Substrate and air temperatures are lowered to the fruiting range.

2. The humidity is maintained at the 95% level.
3. The carbon dioxide content of the room is reduced by the introduction of fresh air.

4. The room is lighted on a 1 2 hour on/off cycle.

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