The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
1 14/The Mushroom Cultivator

SEMI-STERILE AND STERILE
WOOD BASED SUBSTRATES
Mushrooms that grow on wood or wood wastes are termed lignicolous due to their abililty to

utilize lignin, a microbial resistant substance that constitutes the heart wood of trees. The main components of wood, however, are cellulose and hemicellulose, which are also nutrients available to hgdegrading mushroom mycelium. The chart appearing below shows a typical analysis of different
nm
wood and straw types. This table not only illustrates the similarities between wood and straw, but
also the important differences between coniferous and broad leaf trees. The high concentrations of
resins, turpentine and tanins make conifers less suitable for mushroom growing. Conifers are used
on occasion, but they are mixed one to one with hardwood sawdust. In general, the wood of broad
leaf or hardwood species have proven to be the best mushroom growing substrates. Specifically
these tree types are: oak; elm; chestnut; beech; maple; and alder.
Type

Resin

N

P-2 0-5

K20

Hemicell.

Cell.

Liqnin

Spruce
(Picea exceisa)

2.30

0.08

0.02

0.10

11.30

57.84

28.29

Pine

3.45

0.06

0.02

0.09

11 .02

54.25

26.25

Beech
(Fagus silvatica)

1.78

0.13

0.02

0.21

24.86

53.46

22.46

Birch
(Betula verrucosa)

1.80







27.07

45.30

19.56

Wheat Straw

0.00

0.60

0.30

1.10



36.15

16.15

(Pinus silvestris)

(Triticum sativum)
Table of the analyses of various types of wood and straw. Figures are percent of dry weight.
(Adapted from H. Rempe (1 953)).
The most notable commercial species grown on wood is Len tinus edodes, the shiitake mushroom. Traditional methods use oak logs, 3-6 inches in diameter and three feet long, cut between fall
and spring when the sap content is the highest. Special care should be taken not to injure the bark
layer when cutting and handling the logs. The bark is of critical importance for fruiting and is one of
the key factors considered by commercial growers when selecting tree species. The logs should be
scraped clean of lichens and fungi and then drilled with four longitudinal rows of one inch deep
holes spaced eight inches apart. Next, these holes are plugged with spawn and covered with wax.
After 9 to 1 5 months of incubation the logs begin to fruit. (See the species parameter section in
Chapter Xl.) The use of freshly cut logs provides a semi-sterile substrate with no special treatment
and is a very effective method for the home cultivator.
Commercial growers of lignicolous mushrooms are turning increasingly to sawdust based
substrates. Such substrates have been developed in Japan for growing Pleurofus, Flammulina and

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