The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
106/The Mushroom Cultivator
1. The raw

pungent odor is gone; the odor is now light and pleasant, even slightly sweet.

2. The ammonia odor is completely gone. The cresyl orange test shows no reaction. Detector
tubes read 1 0 ppm or less.

3. The pH is below 7.8, preferably 7.5.
4. Straws appear dull and uniformly chocolate brown, speckled with whitish actinomycetes.
5. The compost is soft and pliable and can be sheared easily.
6. When squeezed the compost holds its form. No water appears and the hand remains
relatively clean.

7. Moisture content is 64-66% for horse manure and 67-68% for synthetics.
8. Nitrogen content is 2.0-2.3%; the C:N ratio is 17:1.

ALTERNATIVE COMPOSTS AND

COMPOSTING PROCEDURES
Sugar Cane Bagasse Compost
Sugar cane bagasse is the cellulosic by-product of sugar cane after most of the sugars have
been removed. It is generally a short fibrous material with a high moisture holding capacity. Total nitrogen amounts to 0.18%. In 1960, Dr. Kneebone of Pennsylvania State University reported growing Psilocybe aztecorum on a bagasse based compost. He later reported in more detail on experiments using bagasse compost for growing Agaricus brunnescens. Bagasse used as stable bedding
produced yields comparable to the horse manure based control. Bagasse supplemented with a

commercial activator ("Acto 88") yielded poorly.
Dr. Kneebone's composts were prepared using the standard techniques elucidated in this chapter with a turn schedule on days 0-2-5-7-9. The supplemented bagasse was composted 3 days
longer and all bagasse based com posts had moisture contents ranging from 75-83%. Significantly,
the bagasse compost with the lowest moisture content had the highest yield. All bagasse composts
had larger mushrooms than the control.
This work by Kneebone demonstrates the value of bagasse as a mushroom growing substrate.
Using the compost formula format, composts can be devised to meet the needs of the two species
named and many others. A good supplement would be horse droppings on wood shavings. If the

bagasse compost becomes too short or wet, the gypsum can be increased from 5% to 8% of the
dry weight.

The 5-Day Express Composting Method
During the past 20 years compost research has been directed towards shortening the overall
preparation period. The goal is to reduce handling and further conserve the nutrient base (dry mat-

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