The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Compost Preparation/97
cause of its inhibitory effect on the growth of mushroom mycelium. The result of this microbial action is a build-up of cell substance or "biomass" which contains vitamins, fats and proteins. What
the mushroom mycelium uses for a large portion of its nutrition then, is the concentrated bodies
forming the microbial biomass. This biomass constitutes part of the brown layer coating the partially
decomposed straw fibers.
Many growers consider Phase II to be the most important stage in the growing cycle and rightly
so. An improperly prepared substrate yields few if any mushrooms. It is critical, therefore, that the
environmental conditions required during Phase II be carefully maintained. Phase II can be separated into two distinct parts, each serving a specific function. These are:

1. PASTEURIZATION: The air and compost temperature are held at 135-140 °F. for 2-6
hours. The purpose of pasteurization is to kill or neutralize all harmful organisms in the
compost, compost container and the room. These are mainly nematodes, eggs and larvae
of flies, mites, harmful fungi and their spores. The length of time needed generally depends
on the depth of fill. Deeper compost layers require more time than shallow ones. In general, two hours at 1 40 °F. is sufficient. Compost temperatures above 1 40°F. must be avoided because they inactivate fungi and actinomycetes while at the same time stimulating the
ammonifying bacteria. If temperatures do go above 140°F., be sure there is a generous
supply of fresh air.

2. CONDITIONING: The compost temperature is held at 118-130°F. Once the pasteurization is completed, the compost temperature should be lowered gradually over 24 hours to
the temperature zone favored by actinomycetes and fungi. The exact temperature varies according to the depth of fill. At depths up to 8 inches, 1 22 °F. as measured in the center of

the compost is most frequently used. At depths over 8 inches, temperature stratification
becomes more pronounced, making a higher core temperature of 128 °F.advantageous. A
common procedure is to bring the compost temperature down in steps, dropping the core
temperature 2 °per day, from 130° to 1 22°F. This temperature is then held until all traces
of ammonia are gone.

Basic Air Requirements
Phase II is purely a process of aerobic fermentation and as such a constant supply of fresh air is
essential. To insure this supply, a minimum fresh air setting is established on the air intake damper.
A standard minimum setting is 8-10% of the intake opening. The oxygen level can be checked in a
practical manner by lighting a match in the Phase II room. If a flame can be maintained, the oxygen
level is sufficient. Lack of oxygen stimulates the growth of C/iaefomium, the Olive Green Mold,
which will spoil the compost. (See Chapter XIII).
Compost temperatures follow the air temperature of the room. Fresh air not only supplies oxygen, but is also used to keep the compost within the correct temperature zone. To drop the compost temperature, more fresh air is introduced and vice versa. Oversupply of fresh air is only a problem if it leads to rapid cooling of the compost. In this regard, changes in the fresh air setting should

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor