The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Compost Preparation/89
the nitrogenous compounds thereby releasing ammonia. This ammonia is then utilized by successive microbial populations and the temperature rises.
After make-up, the mesophiles remain in the cool outer zones while the thermophilic fungi, actiriomycetes and bacteria dominate the inside of the pile. The actinomycetes are clearly visible as
whitish flecks forming a distinct ring around the hot center. Bacteria dominate this center area and
continue to decompose the nitrogenous supplements, liberating more ammonia. At this point the
carbohydrates in the straw are ready for microbial use.
At temperatures over 1 50 °F., microbial action slows and chemical processes begin. Between

150-165°F. microbial and chemical actionsoccursimultaneously. From 165-180°F. decomposition is mainly due to the chemical reactions of humification and caramellization, the latter taking
place under conditions of high temperature, high pH (8.5) and in the presence of ammonia and
oxygen. Many of the dark compounds produced during composting are believed to result from
these chemical reactions. Decomposition proceeds rapidly at these high temperatures, and if they
can be maintained throughout the process, composting time will be greatly reduced.
Figure 87 shows the temperature zonation commonly found in a compost pile. Studies by Dr.
E.B. Lambert in the 1 930's showed that compost taken from zone 2 produced the highest yielding
crops. Based on this research, growers always subject their compost to zone 2 conditions prior to
spawning. This normally occurs during Phase H in specially designed rooms. However, if a Phase II
room can not be built, zone 2 conditions can be achieved by an alternate method known as Long
Composting, developed by C. Riber Rasmussen of Denmark.

Long Composting
Long composting is designed to carry out the complete composting process outdoors (excluding pasteurization). The method is characterized by the avoidance of high temperature chemical decomposition and a reliance on purely microbial action. Specifically this procedure is designed to
promote the growth of actinomycetes and rid the compost of all ammonia by the time of filling. The
temperature zonation desired in this method is illustrated in Figure 88. An outline of the Long Cornposting procedure follows.

DAY
-10

-5
-2

0

LONG COMPOSTING PROCEDURE
For synthetic composts: Break the straw bales and water them thoroughly. Mix in
group 1,4 or 5 supplements or chicken manure. Windrow. Start at day -5 if straw is
short or has been chopped.
For synthetic composts: Turn and add more water. Break up any concentrations of
supplements. Windrow.
For horse manure or synthetic composts: Thoroughly wet and mix all raw materials
and supplements (except gypsum). Windrow.
Make up the pile. Dimensions should be 6 feet wide and 4 feet high. The vertical sides

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor