Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
THE MUSHROOM LIFE CYCLE

69

scape, the inycosphere, will give rise to an even,
high-density population of rapidly forming primordia.Visible to the naked eye, the mycelium's
surface is punctuated with a lattice-work of val-

leys and ridges upon which moisture droplets
continually form, rest, and evaporate. In the
growing room this period corresponds to 98-100
% rH, or a condensing fog. Even in a fog, air cur-

rents have an evaporative effect, drawing
moisture to the surface layer. The careful management of this mycosphere, with high oxygen,
wicking, evaporation, and moisture replenish-

ment combined with the effect of other
environmental stimuli results in a crescendo of
primordia formation. Cultivators call these environmental stimuli, collectively, the initiation
strategy.
Primordia, once formed, may rest for weeks,

depending upon the species and the prevailing
environment. In most cases, the primordia ma-

Figure 48. Scanning electron micrograph of young
basidium.

ture rapidly. Rhizomorphs, braided strands of
large diameter hyphae, feed the burgeoning pri-

mordia through cytoplasmic streaming. The
cells become multinucleate, accumulating genetic material.Walls orseptae form, separating
pairs of nuclei, and the cells expand, resulting
in an explosive generation of mushroom tissue.
As the mushroom enlarges, differentiation of

familiar features occurs. The cap, stem, veil,
and gills emerge. The cap functions much like
an umbrella, safeguarding the spore-producing

gills from wind and rain. Many mushrooms

Figure 47. As tile basidia mature, sterigmata project
from the apices.

grow towards light.A study by Badham (1985)
showed that, with some mushroom species (i.
e. Psilocybe cubensis), cap orientation is foremost affected by the direction of air currents,
then by light, and finally by gravity. Beneath the
cap, the gill plates radiate outwards from a centralized stem like spokes on a wheel.
Over the surface of the gills, an evenly dis-

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