Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

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GLOSSARY

scierotium. scierotia: a resting stage of myce-

sterilization: the rendering of a substrate to a

hum typified by a mass of hardened

state where all hifeforms have been made inviable. Sterilization by heat (steam) is more
commonly employed in mushroom cultivation than chemical, gas, UV, or radioactive

mycelium resembling a tuber and from which

mushrooms, mycelia, or conidia can arise.
Sclerotia are produced by both ascomycetes
and basidiomycetes.
sector: usually used to describe fans of mycehum morphologically distinct from the type
of mycelium preceding and bordering it.
senescence: the state whereby a living organism
declines in vigor due to age and becomes susceptible to disease.

septum, septa(pl.) structural divisions between
cells, i.e. cell walls.

septate: cells with distinct walls.
skeletal hyphae: coarse, inflated cellular network consisting of thick-walled, unbranched,

cells lacking cross-walls. Skeletal hyphae
give mushrooms a tough, fibrous texture, especially at the stem base. Except for the basal
cell, they are typically clamp-less.

spawn: any material impregnated with mycehum, the aggregation of which is used to
inoculate more massive substrates.
species: a biologically discrete group of individuals which are cross-fertile, and give rise
to fertile progeny.

sporeless strains:Strains which do not produce
spores. Sporeless Oyster strains are highly
sought after given the health problems asso-

ciated with growing these mushrooms

longed exposure to temperatures at or above
the boiling point of water (100° C; 212° F.)
at or above atmospheric pressure.

stipe: the stem of a mushroom.

strain: a race of individuals within a species
sharing a common genetic heritage but differing in some observable set of features which
may or may not be taxonomically significant.

stroma: a dense, cushion-like aggregation of
mycelium forming on the surface of substrate

which generally does not lead to fruitbody
formation.
subhymenium: the layer of cells directly below
the hymenium.
substrate: straw, sawdust, compost, soil, or any
organic material on which mushroom mycehum will grow.

super-pasteurization: prolonged pasteurization utilizing steam. Super-pasteurization
typically is for 12-48 hours at or near to 100°
C. (212°F.) at or near atmospheric pressure.
Super-pasteurization is a method commonly

used to render sawdust substrates, in bulk,

into a form usable for the cultivation of
Shiitake, Oyster, andlor similar mushrooms.

T

indoors.

spores: discrete cells which are used to spread
fungi to new ecological niches, arid are essential in the recombination of genetic material.

sporocarps:

means. Sterilization usually implies pro-

any fruitbody that produces

taxon (taxa p1.): a taxonomic unit, usually in
reference to a species.

thermogenesis: the natural and spontaneous
escalation of temperature in substrates due to

spores.

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