Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
NATURAL CULTURE: CREATING MYCOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES
is that the process is labor-intensive, and slow
in comparison to growing mushrooms on sterilized sawdust. Besides Shiitake, many other
mushrooms can be grown on logs, including
Nameko (Pholiota nameko), all the Oyster-like
mushrooms (Pleurotus and Hypsizygus spp.),
Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus), Wood Ears
(Auricularia species), Clustered Wood Lovers
(Hypholoma capnoides and H. sub! ateritiurn)
and Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum). Since log
culture is not technically demanding, anyone
can do it. In contrast, growing on sterilized substrates requires specialized skills and involves
training in laboratory techniques.
Logs are usually cut in the winter or early
spring before leafing, when the sapwood is rich
in sugars, to a meter in length and 4-10 inches
in diameter. Cultivators generally favor logs
which have a higher ratio of sapwood to heartwood. (These logs come from fast-growing tree

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species like alder, poplar or cottonwood.) Once
inoculated with sawdust or plug spawn, the logs
(or "billets" ) are stacked in ricks and, after 612 months, are initiated by heavy watering or
soaking. After soaking, the logs are lined up in

fence-like rows. Japanese growers have long
favored the "soak and strike" method for initiating mushroom formation. (See Figures 24 and

25.) Before the advent of plug and sawdust
spawn, newly cut logs would be placed near to

logs already producing Shiitake so that the
spores would be broadcasted onto them. This
method, although not scientific, succeeded for
centuries, and still is a pretty good method. Af-

ter a year, logs showing no growth, or the
growth of competitor fungi, are removed from
the production rows.
A wide variety of broad-leaf hardwoods are
suitable for log culture. Oaks, and similar dense
hardwoods with thick outer barks, are prefened

Figure 23. Plug spawn of Shiitake. Spirally grooved wooden dowels help the mycelium survive from the
concussion of inoculation.

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