Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

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DESIGNING AND BUILDING A SPAWN LABORATORY

doorway to remove debris from the feet.

the upper, inside of the petri dishes. These wa-

With ultra-modem clean rooms, a double
door anteroom, called a "Decontamination
Chamber", utilizes the down-flow of HEPA
filtered air over the worker who stands on a
metal grate. The air is pushed from above and
actively exhausted through the floor grate to

contaminants down to the rich media. Bacteria
particularly love condensation surfaces. When
a laboratory is run at 50% relative humidity and
750 F. (24° C.) condensation should dissipate

is

the outside. The principle concept here
valid: the constant descension of airborne
particulates improves laboratory integrity.
Another variation of this concept is the replacement of the solid inner doors with
down-flowing air curtains. However, decontamination chambers and air curtains should
be the last projects on a long list of other priorities for the financially conservative
investor.

4) Interior surfaces not biodegradable.
Interior surfaces such as the walls, counter-

tops, shelving, etc. should not be able to
support mold growth. Wood and sheet rock

should be avoided. The floors should be

ter droplets will carry otherwise-dormant

within 24 hours after autoclaving. The other
problem caused by temperature fluctuation is
that the outer walls of the laboratory, especially
those made of concrete, sweat. I had one small
home laboratory that grew an enormous colony
of white mold on a painted, white cinder block

wall. The whole laboratory contaminated despite my best efforts. Only when I washed the
wall did I find the source. If your only option is

a laboratory with an outside facing cinder
block wall, make sure the pores have been
sealed with a thick coat of paint and permanently place an electric, baseboard heating unit
facing the wall to eliminate the possibility of
condensation.

6) Lights covered with dust-proof covers.

cally resistant, cleanable mat. When using a
paint, use a non-mildewing enamel. (Caution:
Do not use paint containing fungicides, particular any containing tributyl tin oxide, an

Fluorescent lights should be covered with lens
coverings. Uncovered lights ionize particulates
which will collect as dust layers on oppositely
charged surfaces. Over time, a habitat for contaminants builds. Ionizers are similar in their

extremely dangerous toxin to both humans and

effect and are greatly over-rated. (See Con-

mushrooms.) Counter-tops can be made of

sumer Reports, Oct. 1992.)
7) Remote vacuum cleaning system. Since
constant cleaning must occur throughout the

painted several times or overlaid with a chemi-

stainless, steel or a hardened laboratory grade

formica. The shelves storing the incubating
bags should be wire meshed, and not solid, so
that the heat generated from incubation is dissipated. Petri dish cultures can be stored on solid
shelves.
5) Walls and ceiling well insulated. Ambience of temperature is critical for maintaining a
laboratory. Temperature fluctuation causes two
problems. When temperatures within the lab
radically change from day to night, condensation forms within the spawn containers and on

inoculation process, having the ability to
quickly pick up spilled grain and sawdust
greatly enhances the ease of inoculation. When
inoculations are done quickly, the likelthood of
airborne fall-out (primarily from the cultivator)
is minimized. Brooms should never be used in

the laboratory. Wet/dry remote vacuums run
the risk of clogging and then breeding contaminants.

Therefore, a "dry" remote vacuum

system is recommended.

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