Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables




culates the entire room once every 1.3 minutes.
This is far more than what is minimally necessary.


the air within the laboratory. The air entering
the laboratory has been already filtered from
the positive pressurization system described

Here are a few key concepts in designing
laboratory, whether the clean room is in the
home or in its own building. If incorporated

in the previous paragraphs. By having two
independent systems, the lifespan of the fil-

into the design of your facility, contamination
vectors will be minimized. Following this list
are helpful suggestions of behavior which, in

extended. And, the clean room becomes easy
to maintain. Furthermore, I am a strong be-

combination, will give rise to an efficient,

characterized by turbulent air streams, with
a high rate of impact through micron filters.
Turbulent, filtered air in the laboratory is far
more desirable than a still air environment.
The key idea: if airbo me particles are introduced, they are kept airborne from

steady state clean room.

1) Positive Pressurize Laboratory. The
laboratory should be continuously positivepressurized with fresh air. The fresh, outside air
is serially filtered, first through a coarse pre-filter (30% efficient at 1 u), then an electrostatic

filter (95—99% efficient at lu), and finally a
HEPA filter (99.99% efficient at .3u). Blowers
must be properly sized to overcome the cumulative static pressures of all the filters. In most
cases, the combined static pressure approaches

1.25 inches. (1 inch of static pressure is the
measure of resistance represented by the movement of water 1 inch, in a 1 inch diameter pipe.)
Air velocity off the face of the final filter should
be at least 200 feet per minute. For a 400 sq. ft.
clean room, 2 ft. x 2 ft. x 6 in. filters should be

employed. The construction of the intake air
system should allow easy access to the filters so
they can be periodically removed, cleaned, and

replaced if necessary. (See Figure 386.) Fresh
air exchange is essential to displace the carbon
dioxide and other gases being generated by the
mushroom mycelium during incubation.

Should carbon dioxide levels escalate, the
growth of contaminants becomes more likely.
Sensitive cultivators can determine the quality
of the laboratory immediately upon entering
using their sense of smell.

ter in the laminar flow bench is greatly

liever in creating a laboratory that


turbulence. If kept airborne, particles are
soon impacted into the micron filters. This
reduces the stratification of contaminant
populations in the laboratory, and of course,

temperature variations. It is important to
note that this concept is diametrically opposite to the "old school" concept that still-air
in the laboratory is the ideal environment for
handling pure cultures.

3) Double to triple door entries. There
should be at least two doors, preferably three
doors, separating the clean room from the outside environment. Double door entries are a
standard in the industry. Doors with windows
have obvious advantages in preventing acci-

dents. Furthermore, the doors should be
gasketed with dirt skirts. When the doors swing
outwards as you exit the innermost clean room,
the export of mature spawn or blocks is made
easier. (I prefer to kick the doors open upon ex-

iting as often times my hands are full.) As
workers travel towards the clean room, they enter rooms hygienicly cleaner than the previous,

2) Stand-alone laminar flow bench. A

and into increasingly, higher pressure zones.
Floor decontamination pads, otherwise known

laminar flow bench constantly recirculates

as "sticky mats" are usually placed before each

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