Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
MUSHROOM FARM ENVIRONMENT
neer systems with mushroom preservation in
mind, paying particular attention to humidity
concerns. Standard refrigeration systems usually suffice, except that humidity must be kept
between 60-85% rH to prevent sudden dehydration of the product. Humidity in excess of 90%
often causes mushrooms to"re-vegetate", caus-

ing a grayish fuzz, and accelerating spoilage.
By 1995, freon will be banned as a refrigerant
and non-ozone destroying substitutes will be

used. New refrigeration systems, including
non-mechanical, carbon dioxide based designs,
are being developed. I have no information con-

cerning their applicability to chilling and
preserving mushrooms. Sufficient air-flow is
essential to effect slow evaporation off the cap
surfaces. Still-air refrigeration systems cause
mushrooms to quickly rot unless the evaporation rate is increased to compensate.

Enviromnent 7:
Shipping & Receiving Room
Purpose: To transfer mushrooms from the cold
storage to the shipping/receiving area. Many
farms have loading docks at the same elevation
as the beds of the produce trucks picking up and

delivering the product. Most facilities are
equipped with overhanging doors.
Facility: An open, high ceiling room with direct
access to the main corridor, the sorting room,
and/or the refrigeration room.

Maximum Temperature: Ambient
Minimum Temperature: Ambient

Humidity: Ambient
Light: As needed for personnel. Fluorescents do
not need lenses.

Insulation: Minimal

459

Additional Comments: A high traffic area, the
shipping & receiving room, besides its obvious
purposes, is also used as a buffer, limiting the
impact of environmental fluctuations from the
outside. Mushrooms are usually weighed and
then 10% is added to offset weight loss due to
evaporation during shipment.

Environment 8:
Production/Recapture
Open-Air Growing Room
Purposes: To recapture as many mushrooms
possible which can not be realized in controlled
environment growing rooms .This building can

solve a dilemma constantly confronting the
growing room personnel: to maximize mushroom yield while not jeopardizing future crops
as contaminants become more common as the
cycle comes to completion.
By the third or fourth flush, yields are in a

state of precipitous decline. Rather than discarding this mycelium, additional harvests can
be realized, with minimum effort, if the sub-

strate is placed outside during conducive
weather conditions. In the temperate regions of
the world, these favorable weather conditions

span several months. During these moist
months, Oyster and Shiitake mushrooms produce prolifically outdoors. I am continually
amazed at the size of mushrooms that can be
harvested outside from "spent" straw or sawdust that has been exported from the indoor
growing rooms. Two types of buildings serve
this purpose well.

Facilities: Either a hoop frame structure covered with"bug-out" or shade cloth or a covered
building with walls constructed of the same,
draping from the outer roof joists.

Positive Pressurization: None

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