Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
NATURAL CULTURE: CREATING MYCOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES

33

Hilber (1982) also reported on the utility of using natural wood (logs & stumps) for growing
Oyster mushrooms, and that per cubic meter of
elm wood, the yield from one season averaged
17-22 kilograms .A study in France by Anselmi
& Deandrea (1979) where poplar and willow
stumps were inoculated with spawn of the Oys-

ter mushroom showed that this mushroom
favored wood from newly felled trees, in zones
which received speckled sunlight. This study

confirmed that Pleurotus ostreatus only attacked dead wood and never became parasitic.

Their study supports my opinion (Stamets
(1990)) that the purposeful inoculation of
stumps can forestall the invasion by parasites

like Honey Mushrooms of the Armillaria
melleacomplex. Mushrooms of this group first

kill their host and then continue to live
Figure 20. Drilling and inoculating a stump with
plug spawn.

saprophytically. A stump with Honey Mush-

rooms can later destroy neighboring living
trees. In Washington State, one colony of Honey
Mushrooms is blamed for destroying hundreds

friendly wood products-based industry.
2) Recycling wood debris of little or no economic value.
3) Prevention of disease vectors from parasitic fungi.

of acres of conifers.
Inoculating stumps with strains cloned from
native mushrooms is favored over the use of exotic fungi. Spring inoculations give the
mycelium the longest possible growing season.

4) Rapidly returning organic nutrients into the
food chain, benefitting other citizens of the forest community and invigorating the ecosystem.

Stumps can be inoculated by one of several

Few studies have been published on recycling stumps with mushrooms. One notable

work from eastern Europe, published by
Pagony (1973), describes the cultivation of
Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) on
large diameter poplars with a 100% success
rate. Inoculations occurred in the spring for
fruitings which began in the ensuing fall, and
continued for several years hence. An average
of four pounds of Oyster mushrooms were harvested over four years (i. e. 1 lb. /year/stump).

simple procedures. Plug spawn can be inserted
into the open face of each stump. If the stumps
are checkered through with cracks, the plugs are
best inserted directly into the fissures.Another
method is known as the wedge or disc inoculation technique. Using a chain saw, a wedge is
cut or a shallow disc is sliced from the open face
of the stump. The newly cut faces are packed

with sawdust spawn. The cut disc is then replaced. By hammering a few nails into the
stump, you can assure firm contact between the
cut faces.

The broad-leaf hardwoods are easier to

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