Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
444

TROUBLESHOOTING

strongly encourage that, at every stage in
vator has the over-riding influence on success or failure. I
jar, sawdust bag, etc. uninoculated
the cultivation process, the cultivator leaves one petri dish, spawn
unique to the media preparation process
to help determine whether or not ensuing contaminants are helpful in diagnosing the probable vector
versus the inoculation method. The se"blanks" are extremely

of contamination.
be exCultivators should note that when one error in the process occurs, many symptoms can
expected
if
the
humidity
is
pressed. For instance, diseases attacking mature mushrooms are to be
100% rH, the surfaces
maintained at too-high levels during cropping. If the growing room is kept at
for
parasitic
fungi
and bacteria. Bacof the mushrooms remain wet and become perfect environments
Mites
eat
mold
spores. Flies
terial blotch attacks developing mushrooms. Green molds proliferate.
deformation
and
developing primordia, massive
carry mites and spores. If these organisms spread to
short shelf lives afcontamination ensues. Those mushrooms which do survive have exaggeratedly
being
too
high—results
in multiple
ter harvest. So, in this instance, one problem—humidity
the
is
good
for
many!
Controlling
symptoms. The lesson here: what is good for one contaminant
growth
environment more conducive to the
vector of contamination must be coupled with creating an
of mushrooms than competitors.
Population explosions of Sciarid and Phorid
flies defeat Oyster mushroom cultivators more
than any other competitor. Fly control measures
have ranged from simple sticky pads to the use
of pesticides, a recourse I abhor. The use of pesticides, although rampant with many "old
school" cultivators, is totally unnecessary for
gourmet and medicinal mushroom cultivation
—given a balance of preventative measures.
Bug lights should be positioned at the entrance
of every door. The bug traps I find that work the
best are those which feature a circular black

light and centrally located fan that creates a
negative pressure vortex, features which greatly

extend their effective range. These bug lights
should also have sticky pads affixed below them
that trap "fly-bys" or "near-misses". (See Figure 384). Coupled with the frequent washing
down of the growing room, at least twice a day,
population explosions can be forestalled or precluded.
There is one final control measure I recommend highly and which occurred naturally in
our growing rooms. For the past 5 years, our
growing rooms have sustained a population of

Figure 384. A highly effective bug trapper. The circular light attacks flies to the vacuum-vortex which
throws the flies into a clear plastic bag. By attaching
"sticky paper" underneath the light, hovering flies

are also captured. The clear bag allows the easy,
daily counting of flies, and helps predict impending
outbreaks.

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor