Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
NATURAL CULTURE: CREATING MYCOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES

3].

light. Stumps in ravines are better candidates
than those located in the center of a clear-cut.
An uprooted stump is not as good a candidate
as a well-rooted one. The presence of mosses,
lichens, andlor ferns is a good indicator that the
microclimate is conducive to mushroom

growth. However, the presence of competitor
fungi generally disqualifies a stump as a good
candidate. These are some of the many factors
that determine the suitability of stumpage.
Cultivating mushrooms on stumps requires
Figure 19. Giant Oyster mushrooms fruiting from
stump.

bountiful success and a dismal failure.

Stumps as Platforms for
Growing Mushrooms
Stumps are especially suitable for growing
gourmet mushrooms. There are few better, or
more massive platforms, than the stump. Mil-

lions of stumps are all that remain of many

forethought. Stumps should be inoculated before

the first season of wild mushrooms. With each
mushroom season, the air becomes laden with
spores, seeking new habitats. The open face of a
stump, essentially a wound, is highly susceptible
to colonization by wild mushrooms. With the
spore cast from wild competitors, the likelihood
of introducing your species of choice is greatly
reduced. If stumps are not inoculated within sev-

eral months of being cut, the probability of
success decreases. Therefore, old stumps are

forests of the world. In most cases, stumps are
seen as having little or no economic potential.
These lone tombstones of biodegradable wood
fiber offer a unique, new opportunity for the
mycologically astute. With selective logging
being increasingly practiced, cultivating gourmet and medicinal mushrooms on stumps will
be the wave of the future.
The advantage of the stump is not only its
sheer mass, but with roots intact, water is con-

poor candidates. Even so, years may pass after
inoculation before mushrooms form on a stump.
Large diameter stumps can harbor many com-

tinuously being drawn via capillary action

clined cultivators. Mushroom landscapes of

through the dead wood cells from the underlying soil base. Once mycelium has permeated
through wood fiber, the stump's water carrying
capacity is increased, thus further supporting
mycelial growth. Candidates for stump culture
must be carefully selected and matched with the
appropriate species. A stump partially or fully
shaded is obviously better than one in full sun-

great complexity could be designed. However,
the occurrence of poisonous mushrooms should
be expected. Two notable, toxic mushrooms frequent stumps: Hypholoma fasciculare

munities of mushrooms. On old-growth or
second-growth Douglas fir stumps common to
the forests of Washington state, finding several
species of mushrooms is not unusual.This natural example of"polyculture"—the simultaneous
concurrence of more than one species in a single
habitat—should encourage experimentally in-

(=Naematoloma fasciculare) which causes
gastro-intestinal upset but usually not death, and
Galerina autumnalis, a mushroom that does kill.
Because of the similarity in appearance between

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor