Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
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GROWTH PARAMETERS

form of sclerotia, whose
nutrified agar media, scierotia form. The Black Morel produces a unique
resemble
small golden nodules
sheer numbers run into the thousands per cubic foot. These sclerotia
early stage of development,
which eventually amass together. When they are broken during their
sterilized media, especially
Micro-scierotia
form
abundantly
on
nutrified,
many more scierotia grow.
MYA, OMYA and the many variations of these formulas.
abundantly against the glass
When sawdust is inoculated with grain spawn, the scierotia form most
mushroom species producing these unique
or plastic container, or along other interfaces. With most
(1967), Stamets & Chilton
formations, sclerotia grow better in darkness than in light. (Heim et al.
formation
of sclerotia in the
(1983), Volk & Leonard (1990)). Although light can totally inhibit the
Morchella esculenta group, strains of Morchella angusticeps are less affected.
which can beBlack Morel sclerotia amass as hundreds of small hardened, pumice-like structures

lost with continuously expanded
come golf-ball sized. The sclerotia-forrning ability is soon

sclerotia-forming ability premycelium. Only by using cultures close to their genetic origins is this
the mycelium changes
served. When the mycelium declines in vigor, scierotia are not only absent, but
aerial mycelium. When cultures
into a mulatto form—cottony white mixed through golden brown,
(100
x
15
mm. dishes filled with MYA),
are transferred for more than ten generations of petri dishes
cultures closest to their wild
the mycelium ceases to form micro-sclerotia. Clearly, maintaining stock
mushroom production.
origins is critical for success in sclerotia production, and by inference,
fermentation
(Gilbert
(1960)
and injection techniques deMorel mycelium adapts to the liquid
Chilton (1983)). Sclerotia
scribed in this book and in The Mushroom Cultivator (Stamets and
grains like rye, wheat or
formation is substantially greater on annual rye grass seed than on coarser
of
incubation in low light
sorghum. Sclerotia from rye grass seed can be harvested after several weeks
or darkness.
Leonard (1990) noted
Suggested Agar Culture Media: MYA, MYPA, PDYA, and OMYA. Volk &
PDA &
that Morchella esculenta, when grown on standard media preparations, notably Difco's
®,
Difco's MycologicalAgar failed to form scierotia spontaneously.
generations. I prefer using
1st, 2nd & 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Rye grain for the first two
calcium sulfate (by dry
soaked, annual rye grass seed for the 3rd or final generation, buffered with 5%
submerge
in water, at 2
weight). Mix the rye grass seed and calcium sulfate together in dry form,
moist hardwood sawdust into
times its make-up volume, and allow to sit overnight. Add 5 lbs. of
liters)
of
moistened
rye
grass
seed
as an even layer to the top
polypropylene bags. Place 1 cup (. 24
15 psi. Inoculate the
surface of each sawdust-filled bag. Fold bags closed and sterilize for 2-3 hours at
Incubate in low light and/or darkness
top layer with rye grain or liquid spawn. Do not through-mix.
for two weeks.
the above and
Substrates for Fruiting: When fully colonized and resplendent with sclerotia, take
moist
layer
of peat moss
invert the bags so that the seed layer is on the bottom. Place 4-6 inches of a
Morel seed/sawdust spawn.
that has been buffered with 10% calcium sulfate (by volume) over the
strategies or used in the
This concoction can be placed outside to benefit from natural spring initiation
substrate
is not critical. The
attempt to grow Morels indoors. Note that separation of the seed from the
is sufficient
10-12 inch depth from the bottom seed layer to the top surface of the buffered peat moss

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