Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
GROWTH PARAMETERS

415

Stumps, branches or log sections can be used
for outdoor cultivation. (See Chapters 4 and 5.)
Once mushrooms have fuiiy produced on these
wood substrates, the remaining material can be
recycled for species sequencing, as fodder for
animal consumption, as a base for
mycofiltration, as a supplement for soil enhancement, or even as pulp for paper
manufacturing. Mushroom mycelium natu-

rally puips the wood on which it grows. I

Figure 375. This mycological experimenter started
a patch of Morels by simply broadcasting "M-11"

spawn into a rocky debris field resplendent with
burnt wood and upturned earth. Inoculated in November, a dozen or more Morels appeared in late

believe the judicious combination of factors:
mushroom strain, tree type and site location
can be juxta-positioned to create a synergistic
model for myco-forestry. Bear in mind that the
ways of Nature are enigmatic. Some of these
interactions may be far more complex than science can currently comprehend. I encourage
readers of this book to explore these concepts
and develop them further. This idea fits neatly

into Chapter 5: The Stametsian Model:
Perinaculture with a Mycological Twist.
Leonard & Yolk (1990) reported the co-oc-

currence of Morels (in the M. esculenta

March. Square pieces of paper indicate locations of
Morel colonies.

complex) fruiting with begonia plants (Begonia tube rhybrida). I have seen Morels growing
with a variety of potted ornamentals, and in the
wild, with leeks. We know of no direct relationship between Morels and these lower plants—their cooccurrence may merely be coincidental. However, the direct association of Morels and certain trees
like cottonwoods, elms, oaks, firs, and apples is consistent and long-term.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass toAchieve Fruiting: Currently the only
successful method for indoor cultivation for any Morels is the one developed by Ower et a!. (1986,
1988). However, I know of no skilled cultivators or professional mycologists who have been able to
grow Morel mushrooms by precisely following the patented techniques. I am currently developing a
method for Morchella angusticeps on cased rye grass seed but have only been successful to the stage
where white "fuzz balls" emerge from a sea of brown mycelium. From the center of these fuzzy formations, finger-like Morel primordia form but abort due to some unknown environmental or genetic
shortcoming. (See Figure 363.)
Morel mycelium can grow across nutrient agar media in a 100 x 15 mm. petri dishes in 3-4 days,
and is clearly the fastest growing of all mushrooms. A conidial, or asexual stage, also develops from
the mycelium wherein a spore is generated from the hyphal network and once germinated, produces

more mycelia and more sclerotia. Soon after the Morel mycelium colonizes the surface of the

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