Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
390

GROWTH PARAMETERS

Fragrance Signature: Rich, sweet and farinaceous.

Natural Method of Outdoor Cultivation: Inoculation of logs or stumps outdoors using
sawdust or plug spawn a la the methods traditionally used for Shiitake. This is one of the few
mushrooms which produces well on walnut
logs. Oaks, beech, elm and similar hardwoods.
(The "paper" barked hardwoods such as alder
and birch are not recommended.) Once inoculated, the 3-4 foot long logs should be buried to
1/3 of their length into the ground, in a naturally shady location. Walnut is comparatively
slow to decompose due to its density, providing

the outdoor cultivator with many years of
fruitings. A heavy inoculation rate shortens the
gestation period.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of
Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting: This

Figure 346. Dr. Andrew Weil in China with H.
erinaceus forming on oak log.

mushroom, in my experience, requires greater
attention to the details of mycelial developspecies. The mycelium grows relatively slowly on
ment for the creation of spawn than most other
the mycelium has grown to a mere 25
nutrified agar media, with fruitbodies often forming before
of mycelium from agar to grain media using the tradimm. in radius. Furthermore, the transferring
comparatively slow growth, taking weeks to colonize
tional scalpel and wedge technique, results in
jars is followed.
unless a regimen of diligent and frequent shaking of the spawn
which is stimulated by agitation in liquid culHericium erinaceus is a classic example of a species
the mycelial mat on agar media. At that time, cultures
ture. I wait until primordial colonies form upon
Eberbach-like stirrer. Once blended, the myceliated fluid, now
are cut into sections and placed into an
formation, is expanded by transferring to sterrich in the growth hormones associated with primordia
of cellular activity.
ilized grain filled spawn jars. The result is an explosion
recommended for
out
on
standard
100
x 15 mm. petri dishes are
Two colonies of mycelium grown
Once stirred, 20-50 ml. of liquid inoculum is poured into evuse with every 1000 ml. of sterile water.
thoroughly shaken to evenly distribute the liquid inoculum,
ery liter to 1/2 gallonjar. The jars are then
undisturbed. Soon thereafter evidence of mycelial replaced on the spawn incubation rack, and left
white dense spots. These dense white spots are sites of
covery can be seen, often with numerous
than that which had formed in the origirapidly forming primordia, now numbering many times over
immediately for further expansion either into more
nal petri dishes. The spawn jars must be used
develop into sizeable fruitbodies. Should the latsterilized grain or sterilized wood, lest the primordia
recommended since the developing mushrooms will be
ter occur, further use of these spawnjars is not

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