Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
NATURAL CULTURE: CREATING MYCOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES

25

Figure 15. Collecting the spores of the delicious Lepiota rachodes, a Parasol Mushroom, on two panes of glass
which are then folded together, creating a Spore Booklet.

For those wishing to begin a mushroom
patch using fresh specimens, a more efficient method of spore collection is
recommended. This method calls for the
immersion of the mushroom in water to cre-

ate a spore mass slurry. Choose fairly
mature mushrooms and submerge them in a
5-gallon bucket of water. A gram or two of

table salt inhibits bacteria from growing
while notsubstantially affecting the viabil-

ity of the spores. By adding 50 ml. of
molasses, spores are stimulated into frenzied germination. After four hours of
soaking, remove the mushroom(s) from the
bucket. Most mushrooms will have released
tens of thousands of spores. Allow the broth
to sit for 24-48 hours at a temperature above
500 F. (10° C.) but under 80° F. (27° C.) In

most cases, spores begin to germinate in
minutes to hours, aggressively in search of
new mates and nutrients. This slurry can be
expanded by a factor of ten in 48 hours. (I

have often dreamed, being the mad scientist, of using spore mass slurries of Morels
and other species to aerially "bomb" large
expanses of forest lands.This idea, as crazy
as it may initially sound, warrants serious
investigation.)
During this stage of frenzied spore germina-

tion, the mushroom patch habitat should be
designed and constructed. Each species has
unique requirements for substrate components
for fruiting. However, mycelia of most species
will run through a variety of lignin-cellulosic
wastes. Only at the stage when fruitbody production is sought does the precise formulation
of the substrate become crucial.

Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, P eryngii
and allies), King Stropharia (Stropharia
rugoso-annulata), and Shaggy Mane(Coprinus
coniatus) mushrooms thrive in a broad range of
substrate formulations. Other mushrooms such
as Morels (Morchella angusticeps & esculenta)
are more restrictive in their requirements. Since

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