Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
GROWTH PARAMETERS

373

tiating fungi in the 21st century.

Those experimenting with stump culture
should allow one to three years before fruitings
can be expected. High inoculation rates are recommended. Stumps do not necessarily have to
be "virgin". Maitake is well known for attack-

ing trees already being parasitized by other
fungi, as does Zhu Ling (Polyporus
umbellatus). However, it is not yet known un-

der what conditions, Maitake will dominate
over other fungi in this situation. Therefore, for

best results, the inoculation of recently made
stumps is recommended.
As the anti-HIV and immuno-potentiating
properties of Maitake become better understood, I envision the establishment of Sacred
Medicinal Mushroom Forests & Gardens in the

near future. Permaculturally oriented farms
Iligure 335. Maitake usually truits at the base of
dead or dying trees. This is the same tree that yielded

could inoculate hardwood stumps interspersed

amongst multi-canopied shade trees. (See

Chapter 5.) Clear economic, ecological, medical and moral incentives are in place for such
Maitake models. Those with compromised immune systems would be wise to establish their
own medicinal mushroom patches utilizing Maitake and other mushrooms.
the 40 lb. cluster in Figure 328. Some clusters have
weighed in at 100 lbs. apiece.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting: Agar to cereal
grain (rye, wheat, sorghum, milo) for the generation of Spawn Masters. These can be expanded by a
factor of 10 to create 2nd Generation grain spawn. This spawn can, in turn, be used to inoculate sawdust. The resulting sawdust spawn can either inoculate stumps outdoors, or for indoor cultivation on
sterilized sawdustlchipsfbran.
Most fruiting strains begin producing 6-8 weeks from inoculation onto sterilized, supplemented
sawdust. Chung and Jo0 (1989) found that a mixture 15:5:2 of oak sawdust:poplar sawdust:corn
waste generated the greatest yields. The Mon Mushroom Institute of Japan has successfully used
larch sawdust, supplemented with rice bran, to grow this mushroom. As a starting formula, I recommend using the standard sawdust:chips:bran combination described for the cultivation of Shiitake
and then amending this formula to optimize yields. If blocks of this substrate formula are mixed to a
make-up weight of 5lbs. and then inoculated with 1/2 lb. of grain spawn, 1/2-1 lb. clusters of Maitake
can be expected. However, by increasing the makeup weight to 7 lbs., Maitake clusters greater than 1
lb. are generated. The only draw-back is that through-spawning is made more difficult using the stan-

dard bags available to the mushroom industry. With an increase in substrate mass, elevated

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