Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
NATURAL CULTURE: CREATING MYCOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES
mixing and sequencing species. I hope these con-

cepts will be further developed by imaginative
and skilled cultivators.
In one of my outdoor wood chip beds, I created a "polyculture" mushroom patch about 50
x 100 feet in size. In the spring I acquired mixed
wood chips from the county utility company—
mostly alder and Douglas fir—and inoculated
three species into it. One year after inoculation,

in late April through May, Morels showed.
From June to early September, King Stropharia
erupted with force, providing our family with
several hundred pounds. In the late September
through much of November, an assortment of
Clustered Wood lovers (Hypholoma-like) spe-

cies popped up. With non-coincident fruiting
cycles, this Zen-like polyculture approach is
limited only by your imagination.
Species succession can be accomplished indoors. Here is one example. After Shiitake stops
producing on logs or sawdust, the substrate can
be broken apart, re-moistened, re-sterilized, and
re-inoculated with another gourmet mushroom,
in this case, I recommend Oyster mushrooms.

Once the Oyster mushroom life cycle is completed, the substrate can be again sterilized, and
inoculated with the next species. Shiitake, Oyster, King Stropharia and finally Shaggy Manes
can all be grown on the same substrate, increasingly reducing the substrate mass, without the
addition of new materials. The majority of the
substrate mass that does not evolve into gases is
regenerated into mushrooms.The conversion of
substrate mass-to-mushroom mass is mind boggling. These concepts are further developed in
Chapter 22.
The following list of decomposers are wild
mushrooms most frequently occurring in wood
chips in the northern temperate regions of North
America. In general, these natural competitors
are easy to distinguish from the gourmet mush-

23

room species described in this book.Those that
are mildly poisonous are labelled with * ; those
which are deadly have two **.This list is by no
means comprehensive. Many other species, especially the poisonous mycorrhizal Amanita,
Hebeloma, Inocybe & Cortinarius species are
not listed here. Mushrooms from these genera
can inhabit the same plot of ground where a cultivator may lay down wood chips, even if the
host tree is far removed.

Some Wild Mushrooms
Naturally Found in Beds of
Wood Chips
Ground lovers

Agrocybe spp. and Pholiota spp.
The Sweaters
Clitocybe spp. *
The Inky Caps
Coprinus atramentarius
C. comatus
C. disseminatus
C. lagopus
C. micaceus & allies
The Vomited Scrambled Egg Fungus
Fuligo cristata
The Deadly Galerinas
Galerina autumnalis & allies * *
Red-Staining Lepiotas
Lepiota spp. **
The Clustered Woodlover
Hypholoma capnoides
The Green-Gilled Clustered Woodlover
Hypholoma fasciculare *
The Chestnut Mushroom
Hypholoma sublateritium
The Deadly Ringed Cone Heads
Pholiotina filaris and allies * *
Pholiota terrestris and allies

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