Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






One historic and notable attempt to distinguish the North American from the Far Eastern
taxa can be found in an article published by R.

Imazeki (in Japanese) titled "Reishi and
Ganoderma lucidum that grow in Europe and
America: Their Differences", 1937.
Currently, the best treatises discussing the
taxonomy of these polypores are Gilbertson &
Ryvarden's (1987) monograph, North American Polypores: Vol. I & II and Zhao's (1989)
The Ganodernzataceae in China. The spore
size of G. lucidum is smaller than the inclusive
range of 13-17 in length by 7.5-10 p in width
characteristic of G. oregonense and G. tsugae.
Nevertheless, Gilbertson & Ryvarden did not
consider this feature to be more significant than
habitat when delineating these three taxa in
their Key to Species. Placing emphasis on habifigure 318. U. lucidum (F'orintek's 34-D) 7 days at.
ter inoculation onto malt extract medium.

tat may also be a dubious distinction when

considering these species produce fruitbodies
on non-native woods when cultivated. Features
of higher taxonomic significance—such as interfertility studies and DNA fingerprinting—are
needed to support accurate and defensible species delineation. For instance, interfertility studies with
some collections reveal that G. curtisii (Berk.) Mun. may merely be a yellow form of G. lucidum
common to the southeastern United States. (SeeAdaskaveg & (Iiilbertson (1986 &1987) and Hseu &
Wang (1991)).
From a collector's point of view, G. oregonense is a much more massive mushroom than G.
lucidum and is characterized by a thick pithy flesh in the cap. Also G. ore gonense favors colder
climates whereas G. lucidum is found is warmer regions. (G. lucidum has not been reported from
the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Northwest regions.) Ganoderma curtisii, a species not recognized by Gilbertson & Ryvarden, but acknowledged by Zhao (1989) and Weber (1985) grows in
eastern North America, and is distinguished from others by the predominantly yellowish colored
cap as it emerges These North American "Reishis"—Ganoderina lucidum, G. curtisii,
G. oregonense, and G. tsugae represent a constellation of closely related individuals, probably
stemming from a common ancestry. The argument for retaining them as separate species may be
primarily ecological and host specific and not biological. One of the few cultural distinctions described by Adaskaveg & Gilbertson (1986) is that G. lucidum produces chlamydospores in culture
whereas G. tsugae does not.

In Asia, Ganoderma lucidum has a number of unique allies. Most notably, a black stalked
Ganoderma species, also considered to be a Reishi, is called Ganoderma japonicum Teng (=
Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang colloquially known as Zi zhi.)

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