Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
324

GROWTH PARAMETERS

Substrates for Fruiting: Broadly adaptive,

producing mushrooms on a great array of organic debris. The substrate materials proven to

result in the greatest yields are the cereal

(wheat, rice) straws, hardwood sawdusts, corn

stalks, sugar cane bagasse, coffee waste
(Martinez et al., 1985), pulp mill sludge

(Mueller & Gawley, 1983), cotton waste and
numerous other agricultural and forest waste
by-products. Royse & Bahier (1988) found that
the addition of 20% alfalfa hay to wheat straw
increased yields substantially. In their studies,
yields peeked when a combination of wheat
straw, alfalfa, and delayed release nutrients
were employed. (The effect of delayed release
nutrients on Oyster mushroom yield is discussed in detail by Royse & Schisler, 1987a,
1987b.) Alfalfa hay, as any compost maker
knows, is considered "hot" because of its elFigure 288. P. pulmonarius truiting from 25 lb. bag
Although
yields
evated nitrogen component.
of wheat straw.
can be boosted by adding these nitrogenous
advantage is offset by the likely increase
supplements, the cultivator must balance whether or not this
molds increases directly as nitrogen
in contamination rates. (As a rule, the likelihood of competitor
levels are elevated.) For more information, consult Zadrazil (1980).
Fruiting: Perforated plastic bags, columns, bags, trays, vertical

Recommended Containers for
racks, and bottles.

the

affected by the size of the fruitbody at
Yield Potentials: Biological efficiency 100-200%, greatly
is
achieved.
time of harvest and whether or not a fourth or fifth flush
timing of harvest is critical to the qualHarvest Hints: Because this mushroom grows so quickly, the
individually, in twos or threes, but rarely more.
ity of the overall crop. Mushrooms more often form
been cut, a trait not generally seen with
New mushrooms often form where the old mushrooms have
maturity, they are quick to rot, especially
other Pleurotus species. If the mushrooms are picked at full
Under these conditions, bacteria proliferate,
if kept within a container where gas exchange is limited.
See Figure 380.
and hundreds of primordia form directly on the rotting fruitbodies.
Market: Mostly fresh. Some products, especially soup mixes, feature

Form of Product Sold to

dried, powdered mushrooms.

Nutritional Content: Crude Protein (N x 4.38): 14-27%; fat:2%;
reported protein composition of P.
carbohydrates: 51% (on a dry weight basis). The variation in the
For additional information on the
pulmonarius and its close relatives is discussed by Rai et al. (1988).

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