Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
318

GROWTH PARAMETERS

Form of Product Sold to Market: Fresh and dried

mushrooms. Waste straw substrate has been test

marketed as a cattle feed.

30-144 mg/i00 g; Niacin: 109 mgIlOOg;
For further information, see Bano &
Folic Acid: 65 mgIlOO g. High in potassium: 306 mg/100 g.
Rajarathnam (1982), Miles & Chang (1986), andRai et al. (1988).
al., 1995) show that Pleumtus ostreatus
Medicinal Properties: Recent studies (Gunde-Cimerifian et
Lovastatin ®
and other closely related species naturally produce
excessive blood cholesterol.
zyme A reductase), a drug approved by the FDA in 1987 for treating
concentrated
on the mature gills, and
More Lovastatin is present in the caps than in the stems, more
explain the often reported cholesespecially in the spores. This compound and others related to it may
terol-lowering effects of many woodland mushrooms.
inhibited by more than 60% after
When mice were implanted with Sarcoma 180, the tumors were
constituted 20% of their daily diet. Oyster mushone month. (Ying, 1987.) The Oyster mushrooms
comparatively, in the realm of medicinal mushrooms.
rooms figure as a relatively minor player,
kidney function and helps gastrointestiAnecdotal reports suggest this mushroom improves liver and
of a related, tropical species, Pleurotus
nal disorders. According to Singer (1986), the sclerotia
such diverse medicinal purposes as stomach
tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer is used by native peoples for
smallpox.* (Singer (1986) and Oso (1977)).
pain, constipation, fever, blood pressure and even
reported by workers picking mushAllergic reactions to the spores of P ostreatus are commonly
headache, congestion, coughing, sneezing, nausea, &
rooms indoors. Symptoms include fever,
with Oyster spores, often develop ingeneral malaise. Workers who, at first, can tolerate contact
masks help but do not entirely solve this
creased sensitivity with continued exposure. Filtration
of Oyster mushrooms can carry
work-place related problem. The question as to whether or not spores
answered. Few individuals are allergic to Oyster
virus harmful to humans has not yet been satisfactorily

Nutritional Content: Crude protein: 10-30%. Vitamins C:

mushrooms after they have been cooked. For more information,

consult Reshef et al. (1988).

high heat until golden brown and then
Flavor, Preparation & Cooking: Stir-fry in a light oil at
cooked with other condiments.

of their cultivation are in
Comments: The Oyster mushrooms are the easiest to grow. Disadvantages
by the prolific spore load generated
their short shelf life post harvest and the health problems posed
within the confines of the growing room.
in use. The above-described temperaCold and warm weather strains of this mushroom are widely
weather
strains. Strains evolving in warm
are based on cold

tures for initiating P. ostreatus
outlined for Pleurotus
geographical niches behave more in accordance with the parameters

pulmonarius. (See page 321.)
from many viewpoints. Highly tolPleurotus ostreatus is an extraordinarily interesting mushroom
(1974) noted that mycelial growth peaks at
erant and responsive to carbon dioxide levels, Zadrazil
than 1000 ppm (.01%), noticeable
280,000 ppm or 28% CO2. Unless CO2 levels are reduced to less
*

For information on the cultivation of Pleurotus

tuber-regiurn, consult Okhuoya et al. (1988 & 1990) and Omoanghe

(1992). SeeFigure43.

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