Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






Description: Cap convex at first, expanding to
broadly convex, eventually flat and even upturned in age. 5-20 cm. (+) in diameter. White
to yellow to grayish yellow to tan, rarely with
pinkish tones, to lilac gray to gray-brown. Cap

margin smooth to undulating like an Oyster
shell. Color varies according to the strain,
lighting, and temperature conditions. Stems
are typically eccentrically attached to the cap.
Flesh generally thin. Some strains form clusters; others form individuals.

Distribution: Distributed throughout the temperature and tropical forests of the world.

Natural Habitat: Common on broad-leaf
hardwoods in the spring and fall, especially
cottonwoods, oaks, alders, maples, aspens,
ash, beech, birch, elm, willows and poplars.
(From an evolutionary point of view, this
Figure 282. A sporeless strain of P. ostreatus. Under

the microscope, the gill planes are entirely free of

mushroom has been very successful, given its
ability to saprophytize a broad range of tree

Although seen on dying trees,

P ostreatus is thought to be primarily
a saprophyte, but behaves as a facultative parasite at the earliest opportunity. Occasionally occurring on composting bales of straw, and in Mexico,
on the waste pulp from coffee production. (The occurrence of P ostreatus on this last habitat might be
a result of this species escaping from the woodland environment and taking advantage of a niche pro-

vided by the coffee industry.) P ostreatus, and particularly P ostreatus var. columbinus, are
occasionally found on conifers, especially A bies. The most abundant fruitings of this species is in low
valley riparian habitats.

Microscopic Features: Spores white* to slightly lilac to lilac grey, 7.5-9.5 x 3-4 p. Clamp connections present. Context monomitic.
Available Strains: The genome of strains for this species is vast and increasingly explored by home
and commercial cultivators. Cold and warm weather strains are available from numerous culture libraries. Amycel's #3001 and Penn State's # MW44, cold weather strains, are popular. A warm weather
strain I cloned from mushrooms growing on a fallen oak in a ravine near San Diego, produces an attractive, white mushroom in as short as 10-12 days from inoculation onto wheat straw. (See Figure 285).

From my experiences. Oyster mushrooms from river-bottom habitats in western Washington and Oregon produce a

white to grey buff spore print, and not distinctly lilac as reported for the eastern forms. Furthermore, I have recently
collected a pale rose variety of P ostreatus on alder (Alnus rubra) from western Washington which I have never
encountered before. The pale rose color has been described for P pulmonarius, but not for P ostreatus.

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