Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer
Introduction: Few mushrooms are as spectacular as this one. Its brilliant yellow color astonishes all who first see it. This species forms

clusters hosting a high number of individual
mushrooms, whose stems often diverge from a
single base. Its extreme fragility post harvest

limits its distribution to far away markets.
Spicy and bitter at first, this mushroom imparts a strong nutty flavor upon thorough cook-

ing. Pleurotus citrinopileatus grows quickly
through pasteurized straw and sterilized sawdust,

and thrives at high temperatures.

Common Names:

The Golden Oyster
Ii' mak (Soviet Far East
term for elm mushroom)

Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations:
Pleurotus citrinopileatus is closely allied to
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Paulet) Roll. and is often considered a variety of it. Moser (1978) and

Figure 257. P citrinopileatus mycelium 5 days after

inoculation onto malt extract agar medium.

Singer (1986) described P cornucopiae var.
cornucopiae as having a tawny brown cap whereas P citrinopileatus has an unmistakably brilliant
yellow pileus.

Singer (1986) separated P citrinopileatus Singer from P cornucopiae (Paulet ex Fr.) Rolland
sensu Kuhn. & Rom. (= P macropus BagI.) on the basis of the arrangement of the contextual hyphae.
According to SingerP citrinopileatus has monomitic hyphae whereas P cornucopiae has dimitic hyphae, a designation that has caused considerable confusion since he used this feature as a delineating,
sub-generic distinction.* Upon more careful examination, Parmatso (1987) found that the context
was distinctly dimitic, especially evident in the flesh at the stem base. This observation concurs with
Watling & Gregory's (1989) microscopic observations of P cornucopiae.
Hongo (1976) describes the Golden Oyster mushroom as a variety ofF cornucopiae, i.e. Pleurotus
cornucopiae (Paulet ex Fries) Rolland var. citrinopileatus Singer. Petersen's (1993) interfertility
studies showed a culture of P citrinopileatus from China was indeed sexually compatible with P
cornucopiae from Europe. From my own experiences, the golden color of P citrinopileatus can be
* Singer first

collect P citrinopileatus when fleeing German forces during World War II. He traveled east, acrossAsia,
and during his travels found the Golden Oyster mushroom. Dried samples were brought to the United States for study
years later. This contradiction in the arrangement of the contextual hyphae may simply be a result of poor specimen
quality. Contextual hyphae is more easily compared from tissue originating near the stem base than from the cap.
Hence, such confusion is not uncommon when examining old and tattered herbarium specimens.

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor